NROB60 - Lecture 2.docx

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Janelle Leboutillier

The structure of the Nervous System Chapter 07 and Appendix Slide 1: outline Slide 2:  Know table 7.1 and 7.2 Slide 3: Function Follows Structure  Early observations of structure led to interpretations about function o This was done by damaging certain parts of the brain to figure out the function  Constantly refined as new data is available  Advances in technology and in knowledge o We can now make observations on function without having to damage parts of the brain Slide 4: Understanding the CNS Structure Through Development  Special Features of the Human CNS o Similarities in rate and human brain  Basic arrangement of various structures Slide 5: Understanding CNS Structure Through Development  Special Features of the Human CNS o Differences  Convulations on human cerebrum surface called sulci and gyri  Lissencephalic (rat) and gyrencephalic (human)  Size of ofactory bulb  Growth of cerebral hemisphere: Temporal, frontal, parietal, occipital Slide 6: Gross Organization  Rostral most part is the cerebrum  Hemispehres are separated by a deep SAGITTAL FISSURE Slide 7 : Cerebrum  Largest part of the brain  Clearly split down the middle into two cerebral hemispheres  Generally the right hemispheres receives sensations from, and controls movement of the left side of the body and vice versa Slide 8: The Lobes  Everyone has a similar general pattern: o Bumps: Gyri and grooves; sulci and fissures o Used to separate portion of the brain into lobes  If you pull the temporal lobe you can see the depth of the cortex you can see the corpus collosum o Do it during removal of meninges Slide 9: 3 Species Comparison  Human, cat and rat  When looking from a cortical perspective o Cats and rats have a sensorimotor area, o Visual area o Olfactory bulb and auditory area  Auditory area o Humans have a smaller auditory area o Cats and rats have largers auditory areas because they need it to survive (prey and predator uses) o Humans have greater priorities compared to reading  Olfactory bulb o Rats have to find food using their olfactory senses and pheromones Slide 10: The Cerebellum (Little Brain)  Lies right behind the cerebrum  Contains as many neurons as both cerebral hemispheres combined o Shows that just because a structure is smaller, does not mean it is less significant or not as developed  Primarily a movement control center  Extensive conections to cerebrum and spinal cord  Left side controls the left side; right side controls the right o Unlike the rest of the brain o This is ipsilateral Slide 11: Basal View of the Human Brain Slide 12: Anatomical References  For bipeds (humans), an almost 90 degrees bend in the axis at position of the brain means that the brain has different positional references than the spinal cord o Dorsal – is the top when looking at the brain as opposed to the back when
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