Introduction to Social psychology

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Janelle Leboutillier

Chapter 1 Introducing Social PsychologySocial psychologyThe scientic study of how people think about inuence and relate to one anotherBig ideas of social psychology1 We Construct our Social RealitySimilar situations make people think differentlyWe essentially construct objective realitiesExample Football games cause people to associate with one side2 Our Social Intuitions Are Often Powerful but Sometimes PerilousDual processing includes a heuristic intuitional way of thought3 Social Inuences Shape Our BehaviorCultures help dene our situationsExample images of women communism and capitalism expressiveness community attachmentPeople are above all malleable4 Personal Attitudes and Dispositions Also Shape BehaviorPersonality dispositions affect behaviorDifferent people react differently5 Social Behavior is Biologically RootedGenetics predispose us to act in certain manners6 Social Psychologys Principles Are Applicable in Everyday LifeSocial Psychology and Human ValuesNorms and values inuence what social psychology studiesSubjective Aspects of ScienceNature is interpreted not readReality is prejudged based on expectationsSocial representations are shared beliefs that are taken for grantedvalue judgmentsPsychologists sometimes interject their own Example Maslows list of selfactualized individualsPsychologists often interject subjectivity in advice and conceptsLabels often reect judgmentExample selfesteem vs defensivenessCriticism of Social PsychologyThat social psychology simply conrms the obviousBUTWe often invoke common sense after we know the factsHindsight biasThings seem more obvious in retrospectPeople will essentially nd any results unsurprisingResearch Methods in Social PsychologyAn integrated set of principles that explains and predicts Theoryobserved eventsEffectively summarizes a wide range of observationsMakes clear predictions that we can use toConrm or modify the theoryGenerate new explorationSuggest practical applicationHypothesisTestable prediction that can be summarized by a theoryCorrelation does not necessarily mean causationSome advanced correlation tests can suggest causation thoughTimelagged correlations can reveal sequences of eventsconfounding variablesExtraction of Possible biases in surveys1 Order of Questions2 Response Options3 Wording of QuestionsEthics of ExperimentationSocial psychologists use experimental realism to engage mundane realism need to literally participants and shy away from be the same as everyday behaviorThus deception is often usedExperimenters often minimize demand characteristicsCues that seem to demand certain behaviorAll experiments stressInformed consentTruthfulnessProtection from substantial harm and discomfortCondentialityDebriengChapter 2 The Self in the Social WorldSpotlight effectThe belief that others are paying more attention to ones appearance and behavior than they really areIllusion of transparencyThe illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by othersSelfconceptA persons answers to the question Who Am ISelfschemaBeliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of selfrelevant informationMental templates by which we organize our worldspossible selvesInclude Who we might becomeSelfreference effectTendency to process efciently and remember well information related to oneselfDevelopment of the Social SelfAffected strongly by1 The Roles We PlayWe often take on the roles and internalize them as we are shifted into them2 Social IdentityIncludes race religion gender academic major etcWe are conscious of our social identity when we are the minority3 Social ComparisonsEvaluating ones abilities and opinions by comparing oneself with others4 Success and FailureSuccesses cause people to feel more condent and empowered5 Other Peoples JudgmentsWe put lots of importance on how we perceive other peoples perceptions of us lookingglass self
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