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Rutsuko Ito

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lec02 lecture overview 1. early studies 2. adaptive significance 3. what is learnt in pavlovian conditioning? a. excitatory vs inhibitive conditioning b. stimulus-stimulus vs stimulus-response 4. nature of conditioned response (CR) 5. neural basis of pavlovian conditioning pavlov and the dog 1. food = US  causes salivation = UR 2. bell ringing at same time as food = CS + US  salivation = UR 3. bell ringing alone = CS  salivation = CR * a. bell is now a conditioned stimulus which stimulates salivation as a conditioned response human classical conditioning 1. puff of air from straw paired with pencil tap 2. enough trials resulted in pencil tap becoming CS stimulating CR (blinking eye) john watson and little albert 1. loud bang noise = US (aversive stimulus) 2. fear / startle = UR (behavior / response) 3. white rat = CS (conditioned stimulus properties of pavlovian conditioning 1. acquisition period a. when CS and US is paired 2. extinction period a. presentation of CS without presentation of US b. US withheld 3. spontaneous recovery a. CS presented again with US stimulus generalization and discrimination 1. little albert conditioned to fear white rats 2. stimulus generalization induces same fear response to anything that looks like a white rat a. could be white rabbit b. or could look like a rat (gerbil?) 3. generalization gradient of pigeon pecking at an operant box for food a. paired with red or green light b. showed varying degrees of similar and different colored light to see if stimulus generalization occurs adaptive significance 1. allows animals to prepare for an upcoming event 2. signal for food a. anticipatory responses (salivation / flow of gastric juices / mobilization of insulin) for efficient digestion of food b. anticipatory signals inducing aversion to food that cause illness 3. signal for fearful events a. fear associated cues allow animals to prepare for a dangerous encounter b. e.g. freezing response 4. territorial and reproductive significance studies of the male blue gourami 1. condition 1 a. red light barrier stimulus paired with a male gourami (enemy) to exhibit preparatory aggression responses 2. condition 2 a. red light barrier stimulus paired with female gourami (courtship) to exhibit preparatory courtship responses b. increase chances of spawning and good offspring compared to male which populate without this conditioning i. suggests advantage of pavlovian conditioning excitatory vs inhibitory conditioning 1. excitatory a. CS signals the occurrence of a US or reinforcer b. excitatory conditioning can occur in presence of appetitive or aversive stimuli 2. inhibitory a. CS signals the absence of a US or reinforcer autoshaping 1. a form of conditioning in which the conditioned response has not been reinforced by a reward or punishment 2. an instinctive response to certain stimuli 3. no significance to exhibiting this type of behavior, but still do 4. e.g. pigeon pecking at CS (light) when it is paired with an US (food) conditioned suppression 1. lever pressing rat for reward (food) presented with presence of tone paired with shock 2. when tone is heard after 10 trials, aversion response from lever pressing 3. when tone is not heard, lever pressing continues 4. suppression ratio ...? inhibitiory conditioning 1. light stimulus being presented with food (CS1) a. results in food b. excitatory conditioning 2. sound stimulus being co-presented with light (CS2) a. results in no food b. inhibitory conditioning 3. conditioned suppression a. no absence of shock b. association of tone and shock i. excitatory in that aspect 4. inhibitory conditioning a. case in which combination of stimuli signals missing of reward stimulus b. simple detection of inhibitory learning 1. slide 19 -- missed this slide a. summation test i. handshake shock test 1. first impression, they get a shock a. it takes longer to reach a same level (of impression) because of the initial shock b. retardation test i. a c. summation vs retardation i. summation 1. more individual 2. on its own will take longer ii. retardation 1. more collective 2. adding good thing with bad thing 3. overall sum is lower 4. (same thing but more collective) 5. example a. tone - shock b. light - food c. wind - neutral 6. light and tone paired together is retarded whereas light and wind paired together is a stronger stimulus d. It looks like I made a mistake in the previous annoucement as well. There was one key element that I forgot when explaining retardation and summation tests. This is important as it is one way to be tripped up in the exam so please take note. Retardation and summation tests are only used for testing conditioned INHIBITORS. Meaning they should be CS that signal the absence of a US. Examples: Summation: Light is followed by food. Tone + light results in no food. When it has been established that tone is an inhibitor and NOW if you were to pair flashing lights with chocolate, when you present tone and flashing light, there would be less responses to this new CS than if flashing lights were presented alone. Retardation: Light is followed by food. Tone + light results in no food. When it has been established that tone is an inhibitor and THEN you start associating tone to be followed by food, it will take LONGER (or take MORE trials) for the animal to acquire the CR compared to animals who were never exposed to tone before since tone starts of with an inhibitory value. As you can see, the point of "collective" and "individual" CS that i was talking about earlier still stands. It's only a matter of whether the CS is inhibitory or not. Again, inhibitory means it signals the absence of a US. I apologize for missing out on explaining this crucial detail. If this is still unclea
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