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University of Toronto Scarborough
Matthias Niemeier

Nroc64 sensory motor system Introduction to sensory and motor system We have good understanding of the sensory side and some motor (like the coastlines of a continent) but have missing and limited understanding of the middle parts. (Integration) Ramon y Cajal- brought the concept of the neuron Simple minds – Studying simple brains allows more easier learning about system since our brain is more complex. Studying sensorimotor systems – memory – learning - e.g. you don't get burned on the same thing twice to learn not to touch it again The chemical senses – the oldest senses - gustation – olfactory – smell helps on most identify things e.g. danger (survival) – chemoreceptors Taste – salt, sour, sweet, bitter, umami – molecules activate special receptors – bitter – should be avoided – poison – survival – we learn to enjoy but primitive is survival – taste in combination (not only sweet) – but also use other senses e.g. taste and smell The organ of taste – Tongue, pallet, pharynx – all have taste receptors – Tongue Is the organ of taste specifically papillae – the tip of the tongue is sweetness – papillae are used to increase the surface area of the taste on tongue – tastebuds on the top or side of papillae – hundreds of taste buds per papillae – microvilli allow to sense taste using receptor potential Taste receptor cells – Tuning – typically tastes cells are not only for one taste (sweet or salty) but have different levels of tuning to all tastes. Taste – mechanism for taste transduction sensory transduction – 3 mechanisms for 5 types of taste 1. through ion channels 2. block ion channels 3. bind to G protein coupled receptors Saltiness – mostly sense NaCl – special sodium channels (insensitive to voltage) cause depolarization – then open voltage gated sodium channels – and calcium vesicles fusion – cation and anion– anion have inhibitory effects to the point that you don't perceive sodium saccharine at salty but as sweet. Sourness – low pH Bitterness – poison detection – to G protein coupled receptors – Perceive different poisoning – T1R, T2R – different receptors but we don't really care what type of poison just that it is poison Sweetness – pair of receptors T1R2, T
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