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Lecture

NROC64 lec 7: Spinal control of movement - nearly word-for-word what was said in lecture.doc

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Department
Neuroscience
Course Code
NROC64H3
Professor
Niemier

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NROC64 Lec 7Chapter 13 Spinal Control of MovementSAQWhat is the McGurk Effect and explain itANSWERDiffering audiovisual inputLip movement doesnt match with what you hearSeeing looks like dah hearing close eyessounds like bah cover earssounds like gahIntegration of diff sensory inputs gah being between dah and bah the 2 ends We perceive speech sounds in a categorical fashion We never say its something in between Slide 4 Motor ProgramsMotor systems muscles and neurons that control muscles directlyGeneration of coordinated mvts which requires sensory input motor control w proprioception at the very least is what you need for something thats coordinatedotherwise you just get some cramp where muscle is active but not functional or in a coordinated wayParts of motor controloSpinal cord and how it influences coordinated muscle contractionoBrainstem cerebellum basal ganglia cerebral cortex where you have motor programs that are sent down to the spinal cord next weekSlide 5 Overview of fxnl units in motor systemSpinal Cord oHave local circuit neurons for reflexesoHave lower motor neurons themselves which innervate skeletal musclesoHave sensory input coming from the muscles that influence the system in the spinal cordBrainstem cerebellum basal ganglia cerebral cortexoOn top will focus on next weekSlide 8 Muscle types2 typesosmooth digestive tract arteries related structuresostriated cardiacskeletal somatic musclesSlide 9 Somatic musculatureMotor systems muscles and neurons that control muscles directly falls into 3 diff groups depending on which parts of the skeleton is moves that wayoAxial core muscles trunk mvt turns etc PD patients have difficulty with these muscles and have trouble initiating mvt with these muscles particularly important for sleeping PD patients sore in the morning bc didnt turn during the nightoProximal muscles closer to the coreshoulder elbow pelvis kneeoDistal muscles fine motor controlSlide 10 Lower Motor NeuronSpinal cord is thicker at Cervical and Lumbar levels has to do with the fact that they innervate arms and legs respectively and you need more neurons thereWhen you look into these spinal segments ventral horn is most relevant for todays topic bc thats where the soma of the lower motor neurons are located which then innervate the muscles themselvesLower motor neurons themselves are located in the ventral horn of the spinal cordfor sensory neuronsthe soma is located in the dorsal root so NOT inside the dorsal horn the soma are found in spinal ganglionupper motor neurons are innervating the lower motor neuronsSlide 11 Ventral horncervical and lumbarswollenventral horn has 2 main axesogoing from medial to lateral have organization of neurons that are innervating axial to distal muscles neurons innervating the axial muscles are located in medial part of ventral horn whereas neurons innervating the distal muscles are situated in lateral part of ventral hornogoing from dorsal to ventral have flexors located at the dorsal end and extensors located at the ventral end bicepsflexor and tricepsextensoralso illustrates concept of synergistantagonistosynergist contributing to same thing ex 2 flexors working synergisticallyoantagonist flexor and extensor working in antagonistic way inhibition of triceps and excitation of bicepsotheyre innervated differentlySlide 12 Alpha Motor Neurons2 lower motor neuronsoalphaogammaproprioceptionalpha motor neuronsrelevant for contracting a muscleso alpha motor neurons together with the muscle fibre that they synapse on form a MOTOR UNIT there can be one alpha neuron innervating several muscle fibresstill a MOTOR UNITmotor neuron pool set of motor neurons that altogether innervate one muscle ex bicepsSlide 13 Graded Control of Muscle Contraction by Alpha Motor Neuronsstrength and speed of contraction
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