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Lecture 8

Notes - Lecture 8 (March 09).docx

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Matthias Niemeier

NROC64H3SSensory and Motor Systems030912SAQ What is the inverse modelIntroductionThe brain influences activity of the SCVoluntary movementsHierarchy of controls 1 Highest Level Strategy 2 Middle Level Tactics 3 Lowest Level ExecutionSensorimotor System Sensory information used by motor systemDescending Spinal TractAxons descend along 2 major pathways 1 Lateral Pathway distal muscles esp flexors Voluntary movements under cortical control ComponentsCorticospinal tractpyramidal tract rubrospinal tract Effects of Lateral Pathway Lesions Experimental lesions make impaired fractionate movements of arms and hands 2 Ventromedial Pathway Posture and locomotion proximal and axial muscles under brain stem control Vestibulospinal Tractsvestibular nuclei in medulla head stabilize eyes legs postureTectospinal tractSC head for gaze movements Pontine and medullar Reticulospinal tract Antigravity reflexes Central vs Peripheral lesions Alpha motor neurons paresis paralysis atrophy Lack of muscle coordination etc Central Lesions Spinal shock phase hypotonia hemiplegia hypertonia hyperrfelxia Babinski Opposite of the lesionsbabinski sole and babies and stretching outThe PLannign of Movement by the Cerebral CortexCerebral CortexMotor Cortex Area 4 and 6 of frontal lobeArea 6Higher Motor Area PenfieldLateral region Premotor AreaPMAMedial region Supplementary motor area SMAMotor maps of PMA and SMA have similar functions but different groups of muscles innervatedDifferent functions Depending on the situation the inverse model relies on externalinternal casesMushiake et al Externalinternal guidance for button presses Contributions of Posterior Parietal and Prefrontal CortexRepresent highest level of motor control Decisions about actions and outcomesArea 5 Input form 312Area 7 Input from higherorder visual cortical areas ie MT Major entry pointfor MOTIONNOT the site for lesions causing neglectAnterior Frontal Lobes Abstract though decision making and anticipating consequences for actionArea 6 Actions converting into signals on how actions will be performedNeuronal Correlates of Motor PlanningEvarts Record activity in motor areas of awake behaving animals
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