NROC64H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Saccade, Sclera, Retina
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NROC64 LECTURE 1
Email – email@example.com .ca
Office hours Tuesdays 1-2 pm Sw 550
10 questions each for the quiz
• Though papers → 2 pages double spaced exactly
• Frist a brief paragraph ending with thesis. This though paper I am going to argue that.. or
you can pick one thing to critize and state there is a lot wrong.
• One though and write a couple of paragraph.
• In conclusion, summarize your thought paper. Last paragraph summarizes your paper.
• Papers due on week 4 and 11 at 11:59pm.
• Should be less than 20% overlap.
• Midterm 2 should be week 9.
• Whales aren’t fish, there are more related to hippopotamus genetically. Why do they look
more like sharks? Because whales and sharks are optimized from swimming. Evolution is
a optimization mechanism. The optimization principles here for the body shape is that it
reduces water resistance.
• Spine was initially designed to go sort of horizontal. At some point the one optimization
principle overruled another. Walking on 2 legs was more energy efficient which
overruled than having a spine that was designed for that.
• Another example- photo receptors response to action potential or graded potential. Our
eye evolved from sort of eye or compound eye. Squids have photoreceptors on the other
side towards light.
• The brain is optimized for sensorimotor integration. Why would you care if its optimal?
1. Identifying giving a more understanding of things. 2. Helps to reduce the degree of
freedom of how something looks like or how something works. If an animal have to
travel across long distance of water then the animal will try to form and look like a shark
or whale. Also true for brain functions not just the shape.
• 2 contradictory optimization principles govern eye movements. 1.Fovea spot on retina on
vision. 2. Keep retina stable or else vision is really blurred and wont add up to the same
thing. Solution is a saccade. Black lines are the eye movements. There are little knots
where the eye are relatively stable and between there are thin lines connecting the knots.
The saccades spend not as much time and the saccade eye movement are something you
are born with.
Vision 1: Eye
• Structure of eye – eye is wrapped in sclera. It has a purpose that the iris forms a nice
contrast. It helps to see you if someone is looking, like gaze direction. Having a wide
sclera is bigger than most mammals. Light passes through the pupil where light passes
through the iris. Past the pupil is the lens. Colored in blue is the body and muscle to make
the lens or fat. When the muscles contract or relax then due to elastic forces it stretch then
lens to become flatter. After the lens is a round chamber. Retina wraps through the back
fo the eye. The photoreceptors are at the back where there shouldn’t be. Fovea is a
depression in retina. The fovea only contains photoreceptors called cones. These cells
directly interact with light. Information exiting the eye and run through the axon nerves.
• Image formation by eye- Optical system focuses light into the foveas. This is done when
there is a a difference of density to the outside world in the cornea. You can calculate
how these substances can bend light. The cornea has stronger refractor.
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