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NROC64H3 Lecture Notes - Tas1R2, Nasal Cavity, Mucus

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Matthias Niemeier

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NROC64H3S Sensory and Motor Systems
Lecture 1 01.13.12
Introduction to Sensory and Motor Systems
- Knowledge of the brain resembles earlier European’s knowledge of Africa
- Sensory and motor “coastlines”
Sensory transduction and sensory physiology for each of the sensory systems, and models of sensory
processing; spinal and central mechanisms of motor control
Sensory and motor systems sensorimotor systems
- Sensorimotor integration expeditions into the unchartered brain
i.e. 60,000 oculomotor neurons
1 output path of 100 billion neurons
- Simple minds: having a simple brain, studying simple brains, studying
subsystems of complex brains
- Studying sensorimotor systems:
Brain made for sensorimotor transformation
“The great end of life is not knowledge but action” – T.H Huxeley
- Everything serves sensorimotor transformations
Autonomic circuits
Conscious (and otherwise functional androids)
The Chemical Senses
- Animals depend on chemical senses to identify nourishment
- Chemical sensation: Oldest and most common sensory system
- Chemical sense: Gustation, olfaction, chemoreceptors (skin, digestive system, neck arteries, hormones, muscles
- Taste
Saltiness, sourness, sweetness, bitterness, umami/savoury
Examples correspondence b/w chemistry
Sweet sugars and artificial sweeteners
Bitter ions like K+ and Mg+, quinine, caffeine
Advantage survival
Poisonous substance often bitter
Set of receptors for poisonous substance lumped together and though
Steps to distinguish the countless unique flavours of food
Each food activates different taste receptors
Distinctive smell
Other sensory modalities
- Organs of Taste: Tongue, palate, pharynx, epiglottis
Areas of sensitivity on tongue
Tip of tongue: Sweetness
Back of tongue: Bitterness
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