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Lecture 2

NROC64H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Ganglion, Cell Membrane, Optic Chiasm


Department
Neuroscience
Course Code
NROC64H3
Professor
Matthias Niemeier
Lecture
2

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NROC64H3S Sensory and Motor Systems
Lecture 2 - 01.20.12
Short Answer Question
Describe the sensory transduction of the taste of bitter within a taste cell. In which way is this process similar to
that of the taste of sweet? Despite the commonality, how can we distinguish b/w bitter and sweet?
Both are GPCR, not exactly the same, Ca ions released from intracellular Ca storages and CA INFLUX
Commonality is that they are of the tongue (not too
important) but there are more cells that are atuned to
____ than ____ (maybe to bitter?),
Introduction
- Significance of Vision: Relationship b/w human eye
and camera
- Retina contains photoreceptors - convert light energy
into neural activity and detects differences in intensity
of light
Properties of Light
- Light: Light and
electromagnetic radiation, electromagnetic radiation, measurement of wavelength,
frequency, amplitude
- Optics: Study of light rays and their interactions
Reflection: Bounce light off surface
Absorption: Transfer of light
particle/surface
Refraction: Bending of light rays
from 1 to another
The Structure of the Eye
- Gross Anatomy:
Pupil: Opening where light enters
eye
Sclera: White of the eye
Iris: Color of eyes
Cornea: Glassy transparent external
surface of eye
Optic nerve: Bundle of axons from retina
BLIND SPOT FOR LEFT EYE IS TEMPORAL SIDE
BLIND SPOT FOR RIGHT EYE IS NASAL SIDE
- Opthalmoscopic Appearance of the Eye
- Eye Disorders:
1. Strabism: In early childhood, training for weaker eye
2. Cataract: With The lends, happens with old age, treated with laser or
artificial lens
3. Glaucoma: Higher pressure in one eye than another, ends with blindness
4. Detached Retina: With older eyes, aging eye,
5. Retinitis Pigmentosa: Genetic disease,
results in atrophy of retina, lose periphery
vision (and night vision) then blindness
Image Formation by the Eye
- Eye collects lights focuses on retina, form
images
- Refraction of light by the cornea
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