Class Notes (906,597)
CA (538,617)
UTSC (32,642)
Neuroscience (303)
NROC64H3 (73)
Lecture

Lecture notes

10 Pages
99 Views

Department
Neuroscience
Course Code
NROC64H3
Professor
Matthias Niemeier

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 10 pages of the document.
Lecture 1 Notes- Sensory and Motor Systems 03:33
Taste
Taste receptor cells have broad tuning; neurons have tuning functions which tune to
certain stimuli
They dont need single neurons for every different type of orientation because single
neurons can tune themselves to different orientations.
Taste stimuli can either pass directly through ion channels; bind to and block ion
channels or bind to G-protein coupled receptors.
Tastants have certain special sodium channels, which can be blocked by certain
drugs. This is how saltiness works.
Larger anions will inhibit the special sodium channels causing the tastant to
determine the sweet sensation.
In sourness, you have protons entering the cells and inhibiting sodium and
potassium channels as well.
In bitterness, it helps to determine poisons. T1R and T2R are the 2 genes that
produce the proteins for taste receptors.
There are 30 different types of receptors that determine bitter tastes. The purpose
of bitterness is to determine what is poisonous.
Bitterness s based on G-protein coupled receptors. The difference btw sensing
bitterness and sweetness is that there are 2 G-protein coupled receptors which
detect sweetness where as bitterness uses only one G-protein coupled receptor.
Umami uses a similar system to sweetness to determine umami taste.
Cranial nerves go directly into the cranium without passing through the spinal cord
where as other nerves pass through the spinal cord.
Two of these cranial nerves are projected from the tongue to the medulla, which are
the facial nerve and the glossopharyngeal nerves.
VPM deals with sensory information from the head. The primary gustatory cortex;
most conscious perception of taste.
Lesions in the cranial nerves could cause loss of taste perception.
Projections to the brain stem hypothalamus and the basal telencephalon.
Labeled line hypothesis- single line for single types of stimuli; individual taste
receptors for each stimulus.
Population coding- a single neuron itself will not give you any information; you need
an entire range of neurons to determine senses. Example, to perceive the taste
temperature and texture of the food you are consuming all at the same time
requires several neurons.
Smell
Olfactory epithelium are responsible for mucus production and chemicals have to be
dissolved in mucus in order to be perceived.
www.notesolution.com
Volatile chemicals stimulate Odorant receptors cells and these neurons make up the
olfactory nerve. They then project in to the cribriform plate.
Humans are weak smellers because the olfactory region is much smaller than in
dogs and receptors are much less dense.
Olfactory transduction: G-protein coupled receptors stimulated stimulate adenylyl
cyclase produce cAMP which open cation channels which cause the influx of
sodium and calcium and the outflow of chlorine molecules.
In humans, despite continuous stimuli of odors, we adapt to the smell after a while.
Lecture slide #44 shows the topography of epithelial cells in olfactory transduction.
We will leave off todays lecture at Central Olfactory Pathways (Lecture
slide 45)
www.notesolution.com
03:33
Didnt go to lecture two
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Lecture 1 Notes- Sensory and Motor Systems 03:33 Taste Taste receptor cells have broad tuning; neurons have tuning functions which tune to certain stimuli They dont need single neurons for every different type of orientation because single neurons can tune themselves to different orientations. Taste stimuli can either pass directly through ion channels; bind to and block ion channels or bind to G-protein coupled receptors. Tastants have certain special sodium channels, which can be blocked by certain drugs. This is how saltiness works. Larger anions will inhibit the special sodium channels causing the tastant to determine the sweet sensation. In sourness, you have protons entering the cells and inhibiting sodium and potassium channels as well. In bitterness, it helps to determine poisons. T1R and T2R are the 2 genes that produce the proteins for taste receptors. There are 30 different types of receptors that determine bitter tastes. The purpose of bitterness is to determine what is poisonous. Bitterness s based on G-protein coupled receptors. The difference btw sensing bitterness and sweetness is that there are 2 G-protein coupled receptors which detect sweetness where as bitterness uses only one G-protein coupled receptor. Umami uses a similar system to sweetness to determine umami taste. Cranial nerves go directly into the cranium without passing through the spinal cord where as other nerves pass through the spinal cord. Two of these cranial nerves are projected from the tongue to the medulla, which are the facial nerve and the glossopharyngeal nerves. VPM deals with sensory information from the head. The primary gustatory cortex; most conscious perception of taste. Lesions in the cranial nerves could cause loss of taste perception. Projections to the brain stem hypothalamus and the basal telencephalon. Labeled line hypothesis- single line for single types of stimuli; individual taste receptors for each stimulus. Population coding- a single neuron itself will not give you any information; you need an entire range of neurons to determine senses. Example, to perceive the taste temperature and texture of the food you are consuming all at the same time requires several neurons. Smell Olfactory epithelium are responsible for mucus production and chemicals have to be dissolved in mucus in order to be perceived. www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit