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Lecture

NROC69H3 Lecture Notes - Citric Acid Cycle, Neuroglia, Pyruvic Acid


Department
Neuroscience
Course Code
NROC69H3
Professor
d

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NROB60 Study Package: Week 3
Homira Osman
Week 3: Lecture
May 20, 2008
Lecture Topics
Lecture III
Readings: Development of the Nervous System (Pages 187 to 192); Differentiation of the
Midbrain; Differentiation of the Hindbrain; Differentiation of the Spinal Cord; Putting the
Pieces Together; Classification (Pages 48 to 49); The Prototypical Neuron (Pages 26 to 46)
Lecture Summaries [L3]
- Differentiation of the Mesencephalic Vesicle: Midbrain
- Very little development compared to Forebrain
- Dorsal surface becomes the Tectum (roof)
- Floor becomes the Tegmentum
- CSF-filled space in between constricts into the Cerebral Aqueduct
o The aqueduct connects rostrally with the third ventricle of the diencephalon
o Because it is small and circular in cross section, the cerebral aqueduct is a good
landmark for identifying the midbrain
Differentiation of the Midbrain
Tectum
- Differentiates into superior colliculus and inferior colliculus
- Superior colliculus receives direct input from the eye
o Controls eye movement
o Cranial nerves III and IV

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NROB60 Study Package: Week 3
Homira Osman
- Inferior colliculus receives direct input from the ear
- Relay station en route to the thalamus
Tegmentum
- Most colourful regions
- Contains both the substantia nigra (black substance) and the red nucleus
o Both are involved in control of voluntary movement
- Other cell groups have axons that project widely throughout CNS
o Regulate consciousness, mood, pleasure and pain
Structure-Function Relationships of the Midbrain
- Diverse
- Conduit for information passing from the spinal cord to the forebrain and vice versa
- Axons descending from cerebral cortex to brain stem and spinal cord (ex: corticospinal tract)
- Damage results in loss of movement to opposite side
- Contribute to:
o Sensory systems,
o Control of movement
o Several other functions
Differentiation of the Rostral Hindbrain
- Hindbrain differentiates into three structures:
o Cerebellum
Develops from rostral part of hindbrain
o Pons
Develops from rostral part of hindbrain
o Medulla oblongata
Develops from caudal part of hindbrain
Called Medulla
- CSF-filled tube becomes the fourth ventricle
- Continuous with cerebral aqueduct of the midbrain
- The rostral hindbrain differentiates into the cerebellum and pons
- The cerebellum is formed by the growth and fusion of the rhombic lips
- The CSF-filled space at the core of the hindbrain is the fourth ventricle

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NROB60 Study Package: Week 3
Homira Osman
Differentiation of the Caudal Hindbrain
- Ventral and lateral walls swell
o Leaves the roof covered by a thin layer of non-neuronal cells
o Ventral surface runs a major white matter system
o Appear triangular in shape
o Called the medullary pyramids
- The caudal hindbrain differentiates into the medulla
- The medullary pyramids are bundles of axons coursing caudally toward the spinal cord
- The CSF-filled space at the core of the medulla is the fourth ventricle
Structure-Function Relationships of the Hindbrain
- Important conduit for information passing from the spinal cord to the forebrain and vice versa
- Contribute to:
o Processing of sensory information,
o Control of voluntary movement
o Regulation of ANS
- Cerebellum “little brain”
o Important movement control center
o Receives massive axonal inputs from spinal cord and pons
Spinal cord: position in space
Pons: information regarding goals of intended movement from cerebral cortex
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