PHLA10 Reason and Truth
1. What does Sober mean by the "internal certifiability" of knowledge?
It means that if I know some proposition p, then there exists an argument
that shows that p must be true, whose premises are either a priori true
or knowable by introspection.
2. Why is reliability an objective feature of some information
carriers and the environment?
Because in most cases of knowledge there is an argument with an
3. What is "circumstantial necessity"?
It is a sort of necessity in which a statement is necessarily true
because of facts about the circumstances.
4. Explain the point of the "fool's barn" example.
A fool’s barn is something that looks like a barn but isn’t one. The
point of this example is when we assert or deny that the only thing
in the circumstances that could cause you to believe that a barn is present is a real barn, we are making reference to the environment you
occupy. This implies that knowledge is relative.
5. What is the difference between "knowledge skepticism" and "rational
Knowledge skepticism says we cannot know anything. Rational belief
rejects our claim to rationality, saying we cannot be rationally
justified in believing wh