Class Notes (806,448)
Canada (492,252)
Philosophy (915)
PHLA10H3 (172)

Weeks 1-11 (includes some reading notes and tutorial notes)

47 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
William Seager

Philosophy Notes Lecture Week 1 Pgs 1-19 Metaphysics deals with issues in ontology and being Why is there anything at all? What is consciousness? - some metaphysics issues have gone science hand off Metaphysics - is the part of philosophy that attempts to describe in very general terms, what there is. Epistemology What is knowledge? - stopped clock, believing it to be true (knowledge) Knowledge and the Mind - the difference between believing something and knowledge Epistemology and Logic - how is the knowledge acquired and secured? Epistemology and Metaphysics - the assessment of metaphysics claims Value Theory Ethics - the nature of right and wrong - e.g. street car Social Theory - political philosophy Aesthetics - what is art? - Does are have a special value True belief if you believe something for no reason at all and it happens by accident to be true Philosophical scepticism- knowledge we never have. We dont even know those things we take to be most obvious. Dualism- the mind and the brain are different things Ethical subjectivism- the idea that there are no ethical facts, only ethical opinions Subjective realm free to argue (opinions) Objective realm - facts Solipsism- your mind is the only thing that exists - arguments divide into two parts premises and conclusions the reason are the premises of the argument, premises are assumptions the statement to be established is the arguments conclusion Good arguments are rationally persuasive, it gives you a good reason to think that conclusion is true Good argument deductively valid OR Good argument not inductively valid abductively strong OR inductively strong Deductive Validity All fish swim All sharks are fish All sharks swim This argument says the premises are true, therefore the conclusion is also true A deductive valid argument is an argument that has the following property: IF its premises are true, its conclusions would have to be true *A valid argument can have false premises and a false conclusion E.g. All plants have minds All ladders are plants All ladders have minds All arguments have a logical form: All Bs are Cs All As are Bs All As are Cs An argument is valid or invalid solely based by virtue of the logical form it has The subjective matter of the argument is irrelevant Invalidity If there is even the smallest possibility that the conclusion could be false when the premises are true, then the argument is deductively invalid Emeralds are green Lemons are yellow It is invalid because there has to be absolute guarantee that the conclusion is true (the fact that emeralds are green doesnt prove that lemons are yellow) -- you need more info Premises All True Not All True True Possible Possible Conclusions False Impossible Possible Turning an invalid argument into a valid one Smith lives in the USA Smith lives in the USA Everyone who lives in USA lives in Wisconsin Smith lives in Wisconsin smith lives in Wisconsin STILL HAS A FALSE PREMISS Smith lives in Wisconsin Everyone who lives in Wisconsin lives in the USA Smith lives in the USA ALL TRUE if then statements are called Conditionals If P, then Q P = actcedent Q= consequent Truth The Redundancy Theory of truth claims that the word true is redundant in just this sense Philosophical Questions - fundamental - general - conceptual analysis No philosophical Labs ONLY thought experiments - Premises must be relevant to conclusion Relevance = the premises must give good reason to believe the conclusion GOOD ARGUMENT All new Yorkers are happy Some people live in new york Some people are happy
More Less

Related notes for PHLA10H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.