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Lecture

lec 6.docx

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Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHLA10H3
Professor
William Seager

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lec 6 1/26/2012 9:09:00 AM Summary of lec 5  Paradox about virtue ethics o If I’m virtuous, then I don’t need to make effort to do the right thing –then just be a bad person, and o So the notion of merit : is a paradox  Plato: the theory of forms o Every concept you use, you already have a pre-natal idea of it o Whatever is around you ( the real life), just copy of those in the platonic heaven o So we have innate knowledge, before we are born  Illustrate with a proof, who can recognoize of math, when you never learnt math before  When you are placed in front of a math truth, as long as you understand it, you then know it  Not like geology, or history, which you had to learn before you see it Plan  Objectivity of knowledge o Subjectivity and projection of subjectivity  Euthyphro: is our knowledge right or wrong?  God and morality? Not Objective and subjective again  Argument is good or wrong, need to look at this  What are the criteria? Who’s to say what ‘s real and objective?  Measures of objectivity o If I see something in front of me, then I use one of my senses  You may remember in Maacbethm after the murder, had a illusination, he sees a dagger—so how does he decide whether it’s a true dagger, or just a illusion?  He said: let me clutch thee  But he didn’t!!!!  The judgement of one sens is judeged for a consilia, with the agreement of another sens  One you know something can be touched and seen, then you may be decide that this is not a illusiviisa hallucination  This is called consilience of sense with sense organ o Another is the consilience of sense with instrument  You see the stick bent when it’s under water  So you need to take it out of water, and see the stick is not bent, so it’s just reflection  The poggendorff illusion  the two diagonal lines are aligned, but using the two parrell lines as measurement o third criteria is the consilience of interpersonal judgement – not intrapersonal  you can see something  even you thinks things are not there, by convincing, even it’s there projection  distinction between it and objectivity  de: to see something in you , in other ppl o beauty is in the eye of the beholder o hateful, and  in euthyphro, the ‘pious/piety’ –is it projection?: the God’s projection, not mine o if it’s God’s projection, then pious/piety ( =morality, virtue) is an objective to me, and I have to accept arbitrarily background of euthyphro discussion ( week2 reading)  his father killed a slave  so what is piety?—asked by Socrates  ‘what the god loves’ is piety—answer by E o problem about this  there are many Gods In greek, if you think it’s God who decide what is piety, then which god are you talking about?  What’s the point of doing piuus things?  Eu : thinks it defines arts—not enough answer!! o How Eu defend his answer?  Question 1: ‘I’m referring to the god Zeus’, who is th best god,  Questions again: if you think Zeus is good, and perfect, then we would he want ( lack /desire) something---conflict!!  Digression – A just So story  This ia a short natural history of God  We are used to be superstitious, that things o Everything for a purpse, with a reason o But most things happen randomly, bit it’s extraordinary to see this randomness o Ppl tned to believe things happen through agency o Attribute things to agent , the result of an agent, who is bad o So most non-monotheist, believe in gods that just do things for fun, and cruel  Tend to believe that you can only be saved by god  There’s not way to explain why this happen  If God is not perfect about deciding who to reward ,a nd who to punish  So how can we have a good god?  So you
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