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Ethics - Session 8

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Kelin Emmett

Ethics - Session 8  continue with Shafer-L.  Kant  thinks that his proposals are equivalent to each other  they are not  principle of universalizability  maxim of an act: principle of an act given before doing it  1. what  2. why  if the maxim is universalizable, it can be done successfully  action is successful upon acting on a maxim if  1. intended act is done  2. goal is „met‟  three step test  1. identify the maxim  2. imagine a world where everybody acts on 1.  3. can I do it in the imaginary world?  yes: good  no: bad  Q. Why is the universalizability test a good test?  A. If the maxim cannot be done in an imaginary world, it means that I am doing it while nobody else is which is unfair.  relying on others to follow the rules is not fair  fairness test  immoral behaviour  irrational  acting contrary to reasoning  categorical imperatives  moral requirements are not like rational requirements  apply to us because we are rational agents  amoralist challenge to morality  the amoralist accepts that the concept of right and wrong exists  does not care  Kant  wants to reject the amoralist claim  through a connection between rationality and morality  argues that the amoralist believes that the concept of right and wrong exists  at the same time, the amoralist does not follow the concept and denies it  immoral  argues that if one were rational  one would be consistent and moral  if obedient to the universalizability principle  cannot reject conclusion if premise one to three are true  need to reject either one, two, or three in order to reject the conclusion  premise 1.  seems to be right  premise 2. and 3. are doubtfu
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