PHLA11 last tutorial
-there is a difference between letting someone die and actively murdering them.
-differences, identifiable victim, certainty of the outcome, different level of
responsibility, different motivations, difficulty.
Singer believes these are extrinsic differences. Letting someone die is
different that actively murdering someone.
If we can prevent something bad from happening without sacrificing anything of
comparable significance, we ought to.
Absolute poverty is bad, there is some of it that we could prevent by spending some
of the money we spend on charities instead of luxuries. We ought to prevent some
We should spend 10% of our income on charity.
Objections-Triage, a policy used in distributing medication in wartime. Only treat
people if the difference is life and death.
-If we feed countires who already can’t feed everyone, there will be more people
who can’t afford to eat. When quality of life goes up birth rates go down.
-Trolley problem. Flip switch to kill one person or five, OR push a fat person on to
the track so no one but him dies. Purpose-to bring out our intuitions to philosophize
-Deductive argument-if premises are true, conclusion must follow
Valid-premises entail conclusion.
Sound-premises are true.
Subjective argument-convincing, objective-being a good argument.
Instrumental-good because it gets you things.
Psychological egoism-selfish claim about the way we behave
Ethical egoism-we should act selfishly, criticizes that we do not act selfishly
Deontology-kant-emphasis on reason and rules Mill-utilitarianism
Teleology-purpose or aim, Aristoltle thought the natural world has a purpose in it.
Virtue Ethics-Aristolte-emphais on character, moral worth of action according to
disposition of person it came from.
Emotivism-Social intuition, moral judgments are expressions of feelings. Not factual
statements. Can combine subjective and objective arguments, it is good because god
says so or because it is.
Reflective Equilibrium- we want to balance our intuitions against the general
principle, modify the general principle, or our intuition.
Nothing is sacred-Everyhting can be questioned, n