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Biomedical - Session 4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Kelin Emmett

Biomedical - Session 4  review last week  access to health care- star and introduction to some basic concepts  all of the syllabus readings are required  Nielson  “right” to health care  Buchanan  pragmatic justification for a minimum right to health care  separate  metaethics  normative ethics  morality  system of rules  metaethics  aim and nature  what is it  what is its objective  objective of questions, right answer  (regarding morality as a system)  normative ethics  field of figuring specific ethical questions  have to have what our metaethical commitments are  thinking through underlying assumptions, justifications  make sure thinking is consistent  source of morality  specifically, a metaethical question  different versions (ex. object and with end, how effective they are)  subjectivism  objectivism  ethical relativism  subjectivism  view individual choose what to do  no objective standard/take on morality  attitude  (what moral judgments)  what I think  if true, can‟t have an argument about morality  objectivism  moral truths  (ex. of certain things)  belief that some things are unknown to humans  one view is that there is always a right answer, it‟s just unknown  always, never impossible  it‟s not impossible to answer hard issues (ex. abortion)  ethical relativism  what is objectively right and wrong is relative to community  ex. country or religion  empirically false people apply universally and won‟t always have the same reaction because of how something is phrased  approx. same moral view by community  three orientations (fundamental orientation) to approach morality  give different answer  can be objective about morality and have different views  deontology: certain duties are objective  in a sense, it is opposite to utilitarianism  may agree on certain things, but different routes of action  doesn‟t appeal to consequences  appeals to a principle  acting duty based, obligatory, universality  universality: applies in all situations  moral obligations  are strict  are not instrumental  certain principals and agents must abide by  cannot go against  obligations rooted in moral beliefs  function of morality  facilitate social good and co-operation  hypothetical and categorical imperatives  hypothetical imperatives  if one wills an end, one ought to will the necessary means  instrumental reasoning  categorical imperatives  appeal to, in virtue of rational nature  regardless of ends  one ought to always treat humanity and rational nature as an end in-itself  criticisms of deontology  how do we account for categorical imperatives  ground claims and wants  do we always have to tell the truth  exception to the rule: ex. of being in WWII and you‟re a German citizen, hiding a Jew. The Nazi come to your house and ask if you have seen a Jew  deontology  provides rigorous constraints  seems to give us wrong answers  if there are conflicting options  Kant‟s solution  look at moralities or whatever more closely  it will become obvious that there is only one option  seems to lack moral guidance in hard situations  another approach  weight options and choose best or exceptions to the rules  utilitarianism  max utility= hedons - dolars  decides wrong and right actions  criticisms:  1. can‟t anticipate consequences  2. looking backwards  justifies situations that shouldn‟t be 
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