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Biomedical – Session 5

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Kelin Emmett

Biomedical – Session 5  note: Introduction to Chapter 7  in the middle of page 364  Fisher says that Buchanan‟s argument is rights-based  false because Buchanan argues for minimal  Neilson‟s argument  rights-based  Buchanan‟s argument  not rights-based  does not support a right to  provisional  supports minimal  rights correlative duty  duties can be enforced  What does “right” entail?  cannot say that we all have a right to  equal health  equal healthcare  equal access to healthcare  problems with agreeing that everyone has the right to  equal health  no matter what we do, health will never be equal  equal healthcare  A will receive the same amount of much health care that B does  A does not need the same amount of health care as B does  A receives too much health care  equal access to health care  equipment that is available in Ontario would need to be available in BC as well  What level of access should be available?  too low of a level results in a two tier health care system  a mixture of public and private  too high of a level would result in less money meant for other services  unequal inequalities, access (poor, sick)  “right to healthcare”  too general  not specific enough  state can enforce  increase amount of tax  people should be self-determining agents, to respect autonomy  can‟t truly be autonomous if institutions are making victims out of the people  if people are going without their basic needs met  note: not an argument for equal health or healthcare  on the condition that there is no money  weigh the different situations  which need is to be met first  on what needs  rules out private health care system  wealth is irrelevant in an egalitarian society  basic health needs  detract from our lives (if not met)  moral entitlement (right)  stronger than saying that it‟d be good  (if everyone had a right to equal health or (access to) healthcare  rights can be coerced  bad if not provided  rights-based argument problems  rights are universal  financial infringement on personal/other services  (ex. education)  right to a decent minimum  attraction  each person has different needs  society relative  avoids low or high levels of access to healthcare  Buchanan  states that there is no need to use a right-based argument  uses various arguments instead of one rights-based argument  not everybody is convinced that everyone has rights  more likely to appeal to a larger audience with non-rights-based arguments  special rights compared to universal rights  special rights  rectify past harms to social groups  unfair that past harms resulted in health risks  people who signed for occupations for the sake of the nation  ex. soldiers, policemen, firemen  argument for preventing harm  ex. providing free flu shots  enforced beneficence  most people want to be beneficent  charity (beneficence)  most effective when collective and coordinated (efficacy)  ex. If the government were to organize a method of collecting 1% tax from the nation and ensure that it would be directed to a deserving charity, everybody would donate  everybody else would be doing it  the money would be directed towards a good cause  can ensure universal access without ensuring beneficial right  Buchanan  adds up arguments to form a single conclusion  argues for a minimum amount of healthcare  special rights, prevention of harm, and enforced beneficence Medical Decisions  four important elements of biomedical ethics  autonomy  respectful of a patient‟s choices  emphasis on “if” can understand the good and harm of the doctor‟s choice  tho
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