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lect 14, 15 Reproductive Technology.docx

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Kelin Emmett

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IVF  Ivf used as a treatment for infertility  Grown fetus transferred to uterus 5 classes of objection 1. Sexual morality – separates reproduction from sex; masturbation might be needed 2. Treatment of embryos – low success rate for implantation, necessary to cultivate a number of embryos  producing many embryos which will disposed of; necessary processes of selection to decide which embryos to implant 3. Harms to persons (mother or child) – physical harm: infections, surgeries, children who are born to IVF are more susceptible to birth defects. – moral harm: creating human life in test tube might lead to viewing a child as a product that can be manipulated, somehow less than a full person; fundamental role of women is to carry children 4. Social justices – given that the world is overpopulated and many unwanted babies, good idea to spend more social resources to create more babies 5. Effects on broader culture – human life reproduced in test tube, view infertile women as a thing that can be manipulated Singer  IVF is unnatural but that doesn't mean we should reject it because everything in medicine is almost unnatural  Should be up to the couplet that separating reproduction and sex will have any harmful consequences to marriage  Better to exist with birth defect than not to exist, justifies too much (in cases where the child suffers every moment)  Argues against social justice (better off to adopt than creating another child): rules are not imposed on fertile couples to have children, therefore unfair to refrain infertile couples from having children  Arbitrary distinctions on fertile and infertile couples: should treat them equally, does not view infertile couples should spend money on resources they see fit Warren  Microlevel concerns (informed consent) – effective IVF on this or that woman/couple/child (ex: can a woman reasonably take IVF risks or are they too great?); argues against this view: women don’t give informed consent to have babies because of social pressure, but doesn't follow that having the option of IVF is valueless to women  Macrolevel concerns – on broader views of woman in society etc (ex: whether IVF results on children/women viewed differently); argues against this view: even if older technologies are looked at, they can be used in ways that are harmful to women and make the culture surrounding rights of the women worse  The existence of IVF show what great value we expect the women to have children  puts pressure on women to have children (pro-natalist culture)  Pro-natalism manifests itself in two ways: microconcerns (whether a woman can genuinely consent to IVF) and macroconcerns (aspect of culture would be ramp up by use of IVF and put even more pressure on women)  Argues against view that describes effect that IVF may have on depriving motherhood on its mystique women are unique in their ability to generate new life  women do not need to be mystified but rather rights and respect  Liberal position Surrogacy  A woman carries a baby for another couple/woman  Can be altruistic (performing for no compensation) or commercial (where controversy arises)  Many of the same objections that apply to IVF also apply to surrogacy  Primary worry is that it looks a lot
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