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Ramu Gopalan

Buddhism • Three vechicles: • Theravada (Hinayana) o Sri Lanka, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand • Mahayana o China, Korea, Mongolia, Japan, Singapore • Vajrayana o Tibet, Bhutan, Nepal, Mongolia • Triple Gems o Buddha (the enlightened one), o Dharma (buddhavacana: doctrine and vinaya) o Samgha (spiritual community) • Innovations: o Teaching of the impermanence of the human self or soul (atman):  Anatman: no self o Social egalitarianism (reacted to the oppressive nature of ‘Hinduism’ or Brahmanical Hinduism o “middle way” • Siddhartha Guatama: o Fifth or fourth century BCE o A prince form a kingdom of souther Nepal, born in Lumbini of the lcan of Sakya o Skyamuni—sage of the sakya clan o Samyaksambuddha—perfectly englightened • The four signs at age 29 o Old age, sickness, death, monk • The four noble truths: o Dukha (suffering)  1. There is suffering in samsara  2. Suffering arises from desire  3. There can be an end to our suffering  4. The end of suffering can be attained through following the eightfoldpath eliminate or minimize desre/eliminate suffering from eliminating desire • The eightfold path: • Right o 1. View o 2. Thought o 3. Speech o 4. Conduct o 5. livelihood o 6. Effort o 7. Mindfulness o 8. Meditations • Foundation Teachings of the Buddha: o Four noble truths o Dependent origionation (inter connected)  Conditioned arising. These originate dependent on toehr things. Nothing can exist on their own • Four noble truths: o There is suffering in samsara o Suffering arises from desire o There can be an end to oru suffering o The end of suffering can be attined through following the eightfold path • Dependent-origination: o All things are constantly changing : a process, a flux o These changes effect subsequent changes in other things:  Karma—nothing will last or is static • The twelve links of the chain of dependent-origination: o 1. Ignorance o 2. Karma formations o 3. Consciousness o 4. Body-mind complex o 5. Six senses o 6. Sense impressions (contacts) o 7. Feelings o 8. Craving o 9. Grasping o 10. ‘becoming’ (the drive to be reborn) o 11. Rebirth o 12. Old age and death • Conditioned-arising • The three baskets: Tripitaka o Sutra—doctrine, indpendnet organization, ways to do meditaions o Vinaya—codes of behavior o Abhidharma—commentaries on the touching of Buddhism ,ti defines on what Buddhism didn’t go into detail • Five percepts o Refraining from:  1. Destroying the life of sentient beings  2. Taking things not given  3. Sexual misconduct  4. False speech  5. Intoxicants—no getting drunk or any sort • On the holy days, htree additional percepts are observed:  6. Abstaining from eating after noon  7. Abstaining
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