March 22 nd 3/22/2012 8:08:00 AM
A reminder about ‘fallacy’
When an argument is fallacious ?
o Depends how the argument is inteneded?
o A formally fallacious argument is acceptable in a scientific
contex; while an invalid argument is not working well in
Begging the question : arguing in a circle
Nothing wrong logically
It’s not a formal fallacy, why?
Only one premise, whle the conclusion is
the accumulation of the premises
o Formally , nothing wrong with the
o So the conclution can’t be true
without the premise being true
o So this is valid
o But not any use
Affirming the consequent:
Sometimes is true, even the formal fallacy
It’s formal fallacy, hence not compel someone to
come to the conclusion
This is not valid( can’t come to the
conclusion from the premises given) ,
but a quite reasonable piece of evidence
so If don’t take it as deductive argument,
not to prove something
But as a piece of scientific evidence, then
You can say at least ‘it fits into’ the
category that dinosaurs are warm-blooded
How can you know that the animals are conscious?
How can you know that they are capable of feeling pains? o How can I even know your conscious? –not even know a
human’s true consciousness, let alone an animal?
Only reasonable to believe, but not proofs
o Reasonably regarded as evidence
o The way the animal show pain is plausible –coherent as what
we expected how a creature behaves when in pain
But for ants , the behavior is hard to interpret for
How he refines the utilitarianism?
o Singer thinks U is ‘intuitive’ rather than ‘critical ‘
When you are sleeping, you are not being conscious,
not critical, but you are still a person at this moment
To treat other mammsalian being more like us, than
with spiders, if you only think on the ‘critical’ level
o Classical U :
Certain quantity of pain or pleasure
o Preference U :
What they say they rather have –singer like this
o What is total interest?
Only think of the interest who is existing NOW
Intuitive vs Critical
Aka, Rule or act utilitarianism
Is it okay to kill someone or something ?
o In each particular case, I’ m unable to think of all the
o In the long wrong, I can’t do calculation every time
o So it’s better to have a general rules, as a guidance ,
allowing for exception
o In Florida, you can save yourself, by shooting someone
The trolley case
o Five ppl to be killed or divert by flipping a switch or throwing
someone down the bridge ?
Preference utilitarianism To promote the greatest happiness of the greatest number
Epicurus’s recipe: ( no wrongness
o If you are not dead, you can’t complain about the awfulness