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University of Toronto Scarborough
Benj Hellie

March 22 nd 3/22/2012 8:08:00 AM A reminder about ‘fallacy’  When an argument is fallacious ? o Depends how the argument is inteneded? o A formally fallacious argument is acceptable in a scientific contex; while an invalid argument is not working well in particular environment  Begging the question : arguing in a circle  Nothing wrong logically  It’s not a formal fallacy, why?  Only one premise, whle the conclusion is the accumulation of the premises o Formally , nothing wrong with the argument o So the conclution can’t be true without the premise being true o So this is valid o But not any use  Affirming the consequent:  Sometimes is true, even the formal fallacy  It’s formal fallacy, hence not compel someone to come to the conclusion  Example:  This is not valid( can’t come to the conclusion from the premises given) ,  but a quite reasonable piece of evidence  so If don’t take it as deductive argument, not to prove something  But as a piece of scientific evidence, then quite reasonable  You can say at least ‘it fits into’ the category that dinosaurs are warm-blooded Singer’s arugment  How can you know that the animals are conscious?  How can you know that they are capable of feeling pains? o How can I even know your conscious? –not even know a human’s true consciousness, let alone an animal?  Only reasonable to believe, but not proofs o Reasonably regarded as evidence o The way the animal show pain is plausible –coherent as what we expected how a creature behaves when in pain  But for ants , the behavior is hard to interpret for human  How he refines the utilitarianism? o Singer thinks U is ‘intuitive’ rather than ‘critical ‘  When you are sleeping, you are not being conscious, not critical, but you are still a person at this moment  To treat other mammsalian being more like us, than with spiders, if you only think on the ‘critical’ level o Classical U :  Certain quantity of pain or pleasure o Preference U :  What they say they rather have –singer like this o What is total interest?  Only think of the interest who is existing NOW Intuitive vs Critical  Aka, Rule or act utilitarianism  Is it okay to kill someone or something ? o In each particular case, I’ m unable to think of all the consequences o In the long wrong, I can’t do calculation every time o So it’s better to have a general rules, as a guidance , allowing for exception o In Florida, you can save yourself, by shooting someone  The trolley case o Five ppl to be killed or divert by flipping a switch or throwing someone down the bridge ? o Preference utilitarianism  To promote the greatest happiness of the greatest number  Epicurus’s recipe: ( no wrongness o If you are not dead, you can’t complain about the awfulness
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