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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHLB20H3
Professor
Benj Hellie
Semester
Fall

Description
LEc 2 arguments’ S&O; types of ethics 1/12/2012 9:11:00 AM Summary of last lecture  Trolley and cannibals  Ways of thinking: why? o Comparison with scie and religion  Religion: sacred / ph is universal abut skeptical  Sci: rigour , but ph is no agreed method  Soundness o Premises are true, and the argument is deductive  Validity ad invalidity  Be forced to be free: don’t believe in anything you were told to do o If you conform, then you are rebellious and vice versa  Read slowly , and spend time in savour o Everyweek, to do turn it—to make a summary  exact , explanatory and critical of what you read today  more a bout argument :  natural realistic fallacy : take the fact from the life, and use it to decide what is good and bad –thi sis called the ‘fact –value gap’  argumets  never ‘ture or false’  sets of propositions, which can be ture or false  they can only be valid( if deductive), or sound  to remember ost arguments are not deductive in reality  objective and sunjective point of view o when you are arugenting with someone, it’s not good th o tell them that they are complelty wrong, cause no one is persuaded to believe in sth –this is the sunjective part of argeument o if you stop right away, this is not a persuading sth –the objective part o subjective is not sufficiently good enough to make a good argument –has to have the objective part too o if you omit to take the subjective side, you may not secure the persuading somte to believe o if you omit the objective side, then you can have the pratical purpse, but not a legitamatily good arguemtn –good for get the voting o there I’s no such thing as compelling arguemntn  to say it’s valid, ?? o you are the judge about what you believe in!! o o some traps about argument  you are tempted to believe in the argument ( A , B -- >C), when you believ ein the conclusion  assessing probbiliti is tricky  probability of A on B, and B on A  base-rate fallacy ! –the 20%  naturalistic fallacy  fallacy: a mistaken belief, esp. one based on unsound argument  also called ‘fact-value’ argument : what is fact, and what is value o not to confuse: what has value, what you ought to do  to donate to charity( value) , but there’s no true statement about how much you donate –it’s just a nice way  but for ‘naturalisitic’—you can take ‘what is value’ equal to ‘what ought to be ‘  many of the facts out there in the world, are most ly noggd good, has no good value o most of the values are not realistez o collect all the exampmples in thew wole, won’t be sufficient enough to decide hat is good,  everyone think so,  it just make me sick to think so –are excuses not to think  what is commandanded in the bible is true  --all these premises ppl hold in their mind is
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