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University of Toronto Scarborough
Benj Hellie

lec 7 1/31/2012 9:11:00 AM Summary pf ;ast weel  Paradox of virtue and merit  Origin of moral values o Plato and the euthyphro o Natural history of God  God’s command is neither sufficient nor necessary  What is good and bad  What is the motivation of being good or bad?—these two def are differnet  The self conflictory –not necessary  Not many ppl care about being punished by God – not sufficient Why should I do the right say? Selfish and egoism  Psychological egoism and ethical egoism o PE: theory about how you are motivated to do what u do o EE: not about how you are motivated, but what you ought to do, or whether you should be guided by self interest, or other sources  What is egoistic? o What accounts as my interst o Immediate ---the pleasure you et at this moment  Adhering to this policy will make you altruistic  Biological background to the PE and altruism o Inherent interst to think about evolution by NS might have made us capable being altruistic o It’s a puzzle how evyeone to have the gne for sacrificing themselves to others Why should I being moral? –from’’ plato’s republic ‘’ book  Being moral is the best policy for any particular perons  Ther’s a identity what is usually contrasted o Morality and prudence o Prudence: what is most rational to do for your own interst o Morality : The right thing even when it’s not in your inters  Morailgy o Consit of rules and concvertps , not of your interst o Demands you be repared to sacrifice your own inters for otehrs’ interst o Recall the 10 commands that are  Don’t take your neighbor’s property and so on  Don’t steal , meaning that you have to let go something you like  Morality says no, because it’s aginast moral rules  So moraligy can conflicts with prudence somethimes  Plato make an analogy o Between a structure of state ( country’s law) and the structure of your own self/soul/ mind o Based on the idea , in both yourself and states, it’s crucial to arrive a harmony bewtween the state and yourself o Problem of this analogy  To reach harmony, individual has to give up to state  Plato’s being accused of this of being fascistic  Fascism: a type of political philo—in a fascistic state, individual don’t have individual right, no rights for speak, or speech  Being too submissive to the state, you are just one little cock  The extract form your book o Glaucon asked: why should I be just?  Those who look at their own interst, seems to have a better life than just ppl o Glaucon supports his argument with 3 things  Second: you will never do the right thing, you ‘ll never refuse to think of your own interst, unless  You’ll calculate , you’ll be caught, you are forced, you are monitored , if you do the wrong thing !!  Third:  How to confront Glaucon’s three ideas o First: the genealogy(origin) of justice  Glaucon: the state of nature is government by ‘the law of the jungle’ –this will arise a bit of pang about the ‘law’—later discussed  The idea of morality/justice arise when ppl are tired of being unjustic  This idea is wrong!!! Why?  You can’t call it ‘injustic’, unless you already understand what ‘justice’ is , or what morality is  So when ppl say ‘let’s establish an agreement’ about morality, justice o Need to conceptually understand what justice /morality is  How can you establish an agreement , when ppl are not respectable to o Unless promising is already established, otherwise the agreement is in vain  Starting an agreement about justice is presupposing you already understand what morality is o So there’s has to be a first agreemtn piror to this o This is the basis on which , that thes
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