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PHLB35H3 (11)

Rationalism Leibniz

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Monica Boyd

Leibniz Relations between SubstancesNo Interaction between SubstancesAccording to Leibniz every substance is like a world apart independent of all other things except for God 192That is individual substances depend on God for their creation and continued existence but otherwise they are completely selfsufficientAs he puts the point later everything that happens to the soul and to each substance follows from its notion and so all its perceptions arise spontaneously from its own nature 204 so there is no causal interaction between created substancesNonetheless the internal states of different substances mutually correspond with one another 192This correspondence is thanks to God who has designed each substance such that its states unfold in harmony with the states of every other substance As such there is at least a sense in which one substance acts on another insofar as God has toaccommodate substances to one another in the Discourse Leibniz puts the point in terms of more or less perfect expression 193 in the Monadology he adds that the reason for a substance being in a given state will sometimes be found in another substance 239Min
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