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Lecture 12

PHLA10H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Axiomatic System

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William Seager

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Philosophy lect. 11?
-november 5th 2013
-decartes and fundationalisum
-principal sounded good but could be wrong
-decartes theory fundationalsium-cant be justified if you are realky wrong
-think about metaphor like a building
-soild foundation and good method of buikding-theory of knowledge
-axiomatic method chose foundaatuonal beliefs that cantt be wrong-build up
foundations by deductive arguments-if premise be true cinclusion myst be true
-sicartes method of doubt- use to discover the foundaions of knowledge
-dicatres infavour of skeptisum-dreaming and illusiokn
-precetion often misleading or wrong therefore there is always a worry that our
precitions might be wrong
-decates method of doubt- impossible to be wrong about own exsistence
-turning something doubtful into something cerrtian
-say I see a dog but I seem to see a dog
-for any proposition you are inclined to believe , p, just adding it seems to me that p
will give a doubt free proposition
-assuimng something called mental certainity
-2 ways to think about mental certainty:
-incorrigiblity- cant be wrong about mental state you are in
-transpariency of the mental-the mind open to you,, if you are mental state you will
know it -when you are in mental state there cant be mental state hidden from you
-lots of mental state you can be in that you don’t k ow anything about
-there could be unconscious mental states that would affect behavior …work out
what mental state they had then they can get better -froid
-friod though inside your dream might be revelaed some secret unknown disires,
invisible mental state-like a code
-some desire hidden affecting behavior but unaware of it
-clear and distinct ideas-
-ideas- come from word that plado used for what he called the forms, decartes
transformed the meaning of word that applied to concept of what applies to our
own minds
-clarity-what is present and apparent to the mind
-dsitinctness- every feature of the idea is clear-complete ideas
-decartes meant by idea was anything in the mind, etc sentations of pain, anything u
are conscious of in own mid count as idea
-clear or un clear, distinct or undistinct (feature if ideas)
-ex. A belief that there is a book in fron t of me
-not clear and distinct
-this involves 1- the exp. of seeming to see a bookand 2- the idea that the book is
exsisting in the world
-only 1 is clear and distinct
-true what we can know for certainity directy
-rule of truth –whatever we think of which is clear and distinct must be true
-rule of truth goes you cant doubt to it is true
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