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Lecture 2

PHLA10H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Deductive Reasoning, Logical Form, Correspondence Theory Of Truth

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William Seager

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Lecture #2 Notes
What is Philosophy?
- Philosophical Questions
o Fundamental
o General
o Conceptual Analysis
- Why aren’t there any Philosophical Labs?
o There are, but they’re called “Though Experiments”
Which force you to ask questions from all sides to solve a certain situation
o The “Hand Off”
o No mystic gurus!
Logic and Argument
- What is an argument?
o A structure of statements designed to prove some point.
o Comes in all different sizes, there is no specific length
o Premises
Must be relevant to conclusions
o Conclusion
o Relevance
Premises must give good reasons in order for the conclusion to be valid, or
for people to believe it
Ex. All New Yorkers are happy.
Some people live in New York.
Some people are happy.
o Deductive Arguments - Validity
Form of logic
Its arguments guarantee the truth of the conclusion
A correct argument: A valid argument
If premises are true, then the conclusion MUST be true
o Ex. If someone lives in Edmonton then they live in Canada.
Fred lives in Edmonton.
So Fred lives in Canada.
Philosophical Interlude: What about this argument?
Definition: a sentence is “positive” if it does not contain any
negations. A sentence that contains a negation is “negative”.
o Ex. All sentences are positive.
Therefore, no sentences are negative
Valid, in logic, is ONLY about arguments there aren’t any valid
statements or ideas, ONLY arguments.
Form vs. Content
o Validity originates from the logical form of an argument
o Logical form might not be obvious
Example of a valid argument
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