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8 Feb 2011
School
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Philosophy Notes
Lecture Week 1
Pgs 1-19
Metaphysics – deals with issues in ontology and being
Why is there anything at all?
What is consciousness?
-some metaphysics issues have gone science “hand off”
Metaphysics - is the part of philosophy that attempts to describe in very general
terms, what there is.
Epistemology
What is knowledge?
-stopped clock, believing it to be true (knowledge)
Knowledge and the Mind
-the difference between believing something and knowledge
Epistemology and Logic
-how is the knowledge acquired and secured?
Epistemology and Metaphysics
-the assessment of metaphysics claims
Value Theory
Ethics
-the nature of right and wrong
-e.g. street car
Social Theory
-political philosophy
Aesthetics
-what is art?
-Does are have a special value
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True belief – if you believe something for no reason at all and it happens by accident to
be true
Philosophical scepticism- knowledge we never have. We don’t even know those things
we take to be most obvious.
Dualism- the mind and the brain are different things
Ethical subjectivism- the idea that there are no ethical facts, only ethical opinions
Subjective realm – free to argue (opinions)
Objective realm - facts
Solipsism- your mind is the only thing that exists
-arguments divide into two parts
premises and conclusions
the reason are the premises of the argument, premises are assumptions
the statement to be established is the arguments conclusion
Good arguments are rationally persuasive, it gives you a good reason to think that
conclusion is true
Good argument deductively valid
OR
Good argument not inductively valid abductively strong OR inductively strong
Deductive Validity
All fish swim
All sharks are fish
All sharks swim
This argument says the premises are true, therefore the conclusion is also true
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