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8 Feb 2011
School
Department
Course
Philosophy
Lecture Week 2
Notes
Pgs. 19-34
Inductive and Deductive Arguments
Deductive Validity
Conclusion cant say anything that wasn’t already contained in the premises
Nondeductive arguments are riskier
-but you gainyou can reach true conlclusions that go beyond premises
-risk is you may reach false conclusions from true premises
Nondeductive- go beyond premises and make conclusions
in a strong deductive nondeductive inference the premises make the conclusion
plausible
Two types of non-deductive inference
-inductive (particular to general)
-abductive (general to particular)
Inductive
Involves taking a description of some sample and extending that description to items
outside the sample
E.g.
60% of the county voters called are Democrats
Approx. 60% of the county are for Democrats
^ goes beyond what the premiss asserts
Two factors that affect how strong or weak arguments are
1. Sample size – bigger the better
2. representatives or unbiasedness -- random is better BUT doesn’t guarantee it
wont be biased
www.notesolution.com
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Document Summary

Deductive validity: conclusion cant say anything that wasn"t already contained in the premises, nondeductive arguments are riskier but you gainyou can reach true conlclusions that go beyond premises risk is you may reach false conclusions from true premises. Nondeductive- go beyond premises and make conclusions in a strong deductive nondeductive inference the premises make the conclusion plausible. Two types of non-deductive inference inductive (particular to general) abductive (general to particular) Involves taking a description of some sample and extending that description to items outside the sample. 60% of the county voters called are democrats. Two factors that affect how strong or weak arguments are: sample size bigger the better. 2. representatives or unbiasedness -- random is better but doesn"t guarantee it wont be biased www. notesolution. com. Assuming something to be true inference to the best explanation. Abductions are not deductive theory could be wrong.

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