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Lecture 2

Week 2 Notes


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHLA10H3
Professor
William Seager
Lecture
2

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Philosophy
Lecture Week 2
Notes
Pgs. 19-34
Inductive and Deductive Arguments
Deductive Validity
Conclusion cant say anything that wasn’t already contained in the premises
Nondeductive arguments are riskier
-but you gainyou can reach true conlclusions that go beyond premises
-risk is you may reach false conclusions from true premises
Nondeductive- go beyond premises and make conclusions
in a strong deductive nondeductive inference the premises make the conclusion
plausible
Two types of non-deductive inference
-inductive (particular to general)
-abductive (general to particular)
Inductive
Involves taking a description of some sample and extending that description to items
outside the sample
E.g.
60% of the county voters called are Democrats
Approx. 60% of the county are for Democrats
^ goes beyond what the premiss asserts
Two factors that affect how strong or weak arguments are
1. Sample size – bigger the better
2. representatives or unbiasedness -- random is better BUT doesn’t guarantee it
wont be biased
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