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Lecture 6

PHLA10H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Theodicy, A Priori And A Posteriori, Foundationalism


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHLA10H3
Professor
William Seager
Lecture
6

Page:
of 2
PHL TUT6
Objective Evil
- Positivism
- Verication
- Religion
Pascal’s matrix
- Forcing belief
- Faith = happiness?
- Assumption of God’s nature
James: pramathesis
- Believing without evidence
- Like Pascal’s wager (idea)
Cliord: Evidencenist
- It’s unethical to believe without evidence
Religion Argument from Evil
1. God must be All-PKG
2. If God exists, there would no evil
3. There is evil
4. Hence, there is no God
How to make a not sound argument; by disagree with one of the
premises
Natural & human evil
Evils: nuclear war, disease-intentionally spread, fame (power, money)
Natural evil: earthquakes, tsunami
Human evil: Hitler, nuclear war
Argument on “There is evil”
1. God’s plan to kill the “bad” person
2. Nothing is evil in fact the free will
3. Soul-building evil
Theodicy vs. Defense
Theodicy – God’s intention
Defense – defense of evil as consequence (God exist)
All laws – theories
Theory – we are quite sure but cannot be absolutely be sure
Epistemology
- Kinds of knowing:
oPropositional – logical argument: true or false (analogical
philosophy)
oKnow-know – extension of body; just know without logical
argument
oObject – knowing familiar
- Knowledge: justied true belief (JTB)
oMore certain – high probability
oHighly reliable but not infallible
Necessary & su-cient conditions
If there is re, then there is oxygen
(Fire is su@cient for oxygen) (Oxygen is necessary for re)
If I’m unmarried, then I’m a bachelor (it doesn’t make sense)
If I am a bachelor, then I am unmarried
(However, being a bachelor means: one must be male and unmarried)
Justication must be infallible then we slip into skepticism!
Descartes
- Not existence of a vaccum
- Foundationalism
- A priori: indubitable (can’t be doubt), su@cient, God given
- Incorrigibility of the mental: infallible access to beliefs/desires
A posterpori
A prior
Cartesian Circle
Evil gives us the doubt????
God
Perfection
Reason