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Reference Guide

Permachart - Marketing Reference Guide: Dualism (Philosophy Of Mind), Ethical Egoism, Noumenon

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l e a r n r e f e r e n c e r e v i e w
• Universals are entities that exist beyond space and time; physical objects and
qualities resemble universals to some extent (such as a person is tall because
he/she partakes of the tallness more than shortness)
• Particulars (individuals) are objects or events within space and time which manifest
characteristics of one or more universals (such as the tall person is a particular or
• A particular can admit contrary universals (such as a person can possess tallness
and shortness in different quantities); only universals remain fixed and unchanging
• Universals have the only true reality, or possess greater reality than particulars
• Reality would continue as it is, even if there were no human subjects to perceive it,
because it has an essence independent of human perception
• Universals depend on human perception to exist
• They do not exist beyond the time they are perceived or conceptualized
• Universals lack a real existence; they are merely abstract terms or names
• As opposed to Realism, particulars exist prior to universals
• If there were no language for humans to conceive of universals, then universals
would not exist
Medieval Each object in the real world participates in the nature of ideal
Realism of itself; that nature may be absolute, specific, or generic
Platonic Each object or quality in the real world owes its existence to
Realism resemblance to, or participation in, ideal form of itself; forms
exist beyond realm of senses (eternal and immutable)
Anti-realism Refusal to accept unverifiable statements (that is, truths that
cannot be verified)
Common Sense All objects outside the mind exist in a concrete sense Realism
• It is given because it conforms to common experience
Neo-realism Objects external to the mind are concrete entities and do not
depend on the mind in order to exist
Critical Realism Mind apprehends external objects as they are duplicated in the
mind • Object is inaccessible; only its conceptual counterpart
can be mentally perceived
Abstracta A term (such as tallness, shortness) referring to a quality that is
considered separately from the particular object that exhibits it
• The existence of abstracta in language suggests that such
qualities exist separately as universals
Predication Logical propositions take the form of a subject and predicate
(such as in the proposition Susan is tall,” Susan is the subject
and is tall is the predicate) The predicates of true propositions
would be meaningless if they did not refer to universals
Resemblance Universals account for the resemblance of particulars
• The form “Susan resembles Jennifer” is logically incomplete; it
requires existence of some universal to determine exactly how
two particulars, Susan and Jennifer, resemble each other
Note: Third type of realism states that each object in real world is derived from a
law or model that exists abstractly in natural science
• Particulars possess essences (something that
makes an object what it is, without which
that object would cease to be itself)
• Distinguishes between essential and
accidental traits of a particular
Counter-Example: A syllogistic scenario that
contradicts essentialism; subjects it to de re
S1: Atomic scientists are necessarily scientists,
but are not necessarily Spanish.
S2: Spanish women are necessarily Spanish, but
not necessarily scientists
S3: Maria is an atomic scientist and Spanish.
Therefore, S4: Maria is necessarily a scientist but
not necessarily Spanish, and necessarily Spanish
but not necessarily a scientist.
S4 forces false conclusion that Maria does not
exist because her description (S3) entails
• This objection is sound if it is limited to de re
analysis; contradiction does not occur on de
dicto reading
• Each substance is distinct because of bare
particulars that determine the main
characteristics of the substance
• Bare particulars are those parts of a particular
without which it would cease to be what it is
• Each particular is nothing more than a bundle
of different kinds of items, or different
properties that constitute it
• Each particular is distinct because it is logically
impossible for two or more objects to possess
identical properties
• Any theory that posits the existence of two
mutually exclusive substances or conditions
• Most types of dualism concentrate on the
mind-body split
Examples: How can humans reconcile mental
and physical stimuli? If only physical
substances exist (a claim of Materialism), then
do thoughts and sensations not exist?
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PHILOSOPHY • A-850-8 1
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