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Political Science
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Lecture Three: Multiculturalim – February 3, 2011
Divided Sovereignty (Review)
1. Quasi-federalism
oPowers divided amongst various levels of government
oNot purely federal because of the federal government's ability to
prevent provincial legislation
2. Competing views on confederation/federalism
oWorry of loss of culture/language
oDebates over balance of power
3. Different founding myths
oUpper-Canada: Great achievement; British influence in North
oQuebec: Preserving the French influence in North America
oAtlantic Canada: Effort to protect colonies from American annexation
4. Why do different founding myths matter?
oShapes the view of how Canada should look now
oDesire for asymmetrical federalism, particularly from Quebec
Distinct society clause
Ability to veto constitution changes
Population in Canada
1. Started with less than 5 million people at Confederation
oNow more than 7 times as large
oHeavy increase in population
2. Rapid growth in the West, stagnation in the East
oMore people live in the West than the East of Canada, but political
institutions have not changed to adjust
oResults in unequal representation in the Senate
685 000 people per one senator in B.C.
34 000 people per one senator in PEI
3. Senate representation is based on equal distribution, not population
oNot based on bi-national province move - doesn't satisfy Quebec
oNot based on tri-national mode - no official representation of
oNot based on equal provinces - different representation for different
oNot based on population
4. Population and immigration
o20% of Canadians are Foreign Born
28% Ontario
50% Toronto
4-5% in NB, NS, and PEI
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