The electoral system: set of institutions and rules that translate the votes of citizens into political seats. Kinds of electoral systems: single-member plurality (smp) o o o o o. Plurality: majority = 50%+1 = 1. 5 more votes than everyone else combined; plurality: more votes than any other single person. Criticisms: party and the amount of seats they win. Discrepancy between the percentage of voters who support a. Regional parties get more seats because they have. Seats not divided by percentage of the total vote, but concentrated support only the votes in a specific area. Parties can have many seats but a smaller share of the vote. Parties can have no seats but a fair share of the vote; Kinds of electoral systems cont: proportional representation (pr) o. Percentage of seats that a political party recieves should be the same as the percentage of the votes that the party received o.