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International Relations Chapters 1-3 (based on all four lectures )

Political Science
Course Code
Francis Wiafe- Amoako

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Introduction to International Relations 10/05/2012 1:41:00 PM
May 10th 2012
Tharrny Selvathayabaran
International Relations : relationship between states , states need each other
States cannot do things just by themselves , the US cannot do things by ; CRIME.
Because we people are restrained in resources ; humans , economically , financially but
OTHER countries can help with that.
Other Actors : In realist opinion , STATE is the only person that matters ; other actors
NGOS <MNSC < IGOS < INDIVIDUALS : tony Blair bill Clinton , bill Richardson
IF you have NGOS AND IGOS = international organization !
Bill Richardson : governor of Mexico he can go in and protect
States are governed by a particular government; enforcing laws, collecting taxes
MAX WEBER STATES : A state monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force
within a given territory ; therefore includes institutions as armed forces, civil services,
the courts , and police.
Issues that state engage in
State Sovereignty : ability of state to act independently in their OWN STATE : treaty of
Westphalia , Global Finance, Terrorism , Human Security, Proliferation , Economic
Development , Environment , organized crime , human rights
History Of International Relation
Traced back to Peace of Westphalia , ended the thirty year’s war and eighty years war.
Established a new world political order ; the idea of STATE SOVEREIGNITY having
supreme independent authority over a territory.
Treaties :
You cannot just enter into a treaty because it is bound by international law bilateral :
two countries (US AND JAPAN) and Multilateral (MORE than two countries) when a
treaty is signed it becomes OBLIGATORY and if you don’t follow it there are

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consequences ; currently NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION TREATY ; the problem : Iran is
trying to go around the treaty
Use of NPT for civil purposes , IRAN (ulterior motives) this violates nuclear non
proliferation (signatory to the treaty) treaties are enforced by reciprocity.
In Daily Life : elections, protests , NAFTA job security , Global Insecurities ,
States relate : improve collective interest , global warming, security, crime , individual
state interests poses a challenge to overall international interest , collective goods
problem is acute in a an international setting due to the lack of supra-government.
Problems of Collective Action :
Free riders : consumer public resources, but don’t share cost of production
Tragedy of the commons : International Waters for fishing; somebody got to give (SELF
Prisoner’s Dilemma : each entity ends up with worse outcome.
How to Deal with Collective Action Problems
The principle of Dominance : we should of have hierarchy , a single country to check
other states if they don’t behave right ; HEGEMONEY : UN , US
Advantages : order , stability, predictability Disadvantages: oppression , Resentment
Reciprocity : positive contribution to System , where u get rewarded ; ghadagi got
rewarded when he said he will not pursue nuclear proliferation , and he got a chance to
talk into un general assembly ; Most norms are based on reciprocity (FREE TRADE)
Advantages : Incentive for mutual cooperation
Disadvantage : Downward Spirals, misjudging other state interests;
Identity : identified in a certain way , some of them want to be neutral ; SWITZERLAND
, identify yourself with a group of people : SCANDAVIAN countries are interested in
the developing worlds; Advantage: Sacrifice for group , Redifine Interest ;
Disadvantage : Seen as OUTCAST .

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Dominance : nuclear arsenals should be kept with five permanent members of security
Reciprocity: Exchange NP for economic gains ;
Defacto : a state that has all institutions ; it may not be recognized by other
states ; Not recognized by international law ; SOMALIA ;Palestine ; Taiwan;
Dejure : a state that is recognized by international law ;
ONLY DEJURE states can enter into international activities and be
represented ! I.E UNITED NATIONS !
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