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Lecture 7

POLB81H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: War In Darfur, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations Special Committee On Palestine


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLB81H3
Professor
M.Hoffmann- Universityof Toronto
Lecture
7

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POLB81 Lecture 7 February 25th 2013.
Dafur video: There’s an ethnic cleansing problem in Darfur. UN failed to solve this problem because they
did not have the consent of the P5 to intervene in Darfur. China was an alliance with Sudan. NGO’s
influenced the US to make an attempt to do something on the Darfur genocide. The conflict spreads to
neighbouring country Chad. The conflict or the problems are continued until today. It’s gotten better but
the conflict itself is not finish.
Governing through the UN
International community has a set of body of institutions to solve genocide mostly centralized in
the United Nations.
The United Nations has not been successful in governing genocide or stopping and preventing it,
if this means success.
The United Nations is a place to start conventional wisdom of what tools we have to stop these
problems.
UN was set up in 1948 to preserve the peace after WWII and was set up by the victorious power
of WWII.
The creation of the UN was a second attempt to preserve peace.
The designers of the UN tried to learn from the problems of the League of Nations. The
designers wanted to keep the good parts of the League of Nations.
UN is a place where states would come together to hash out international conflict,
o deal with conflict with borders,
o wanted to deal the flaws of the league of nations which are:
unanimity - unanimous consent
No armed forces
US not a member- lack of Great power participation
lack of enforcement,
The designers of the UN needed an international body to solve these problems.
o Their solution: Dual structure of
the UN general Assembly,
the UN security Council
o General Assembly is where all countries can come and bring issues to the international
community
o Security Council was made to have some enforcement powers, to uphold peace and
stability
o The UN is an universal organization that deals international issues
o To have the great power to sign on a vote, you have to give privileges to the great
power. Therefore, UN has given veto power to the P5 in the Security Council. Therefore,
attack on one is an attack on all if P5 agrees to it.
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IUN was more effective than League of Nations but P5 and the compromise to get the great
powers involve is what leads to the problems of international conflict.
When North Korea invaded South Korea, this was the first time the UN authorized the use of
force to stop invasion. The Soviet Union was boycotting the UN meeting when Korean War was
going on.
The rivalry in Darfur with China and US really hampered to do something in Darfur.
UN does other things too. Their agenda expanded and put global health, etc. in their agenda.
The UN deals with most of the issues that cut cross borders.
Governing Modern Conflict
In order to govern modern conflict you need autonomy, will and capacity.
Autonomy:
o UN was set up to protect and enhance the sovereignty of states.
o Governing global issues in many cases requires consent (sometimes), cooperation, and
weakening often.
o Governing global issues asking states to make rules. UN asks them set rules that don’t
protect state sovereignty (usually).
o The UN is a Club of state. If we are criticizing the state members, we criticize the UN. UN
in some way is the member states.
o UN has some autonomy but by law the UN doesn’t have any autonomy.
o UN has some autonomy through
Diversity of members
Retreat of restate - because of globalization the ability of state to govern has
been restricted, State competence and capacity to deal with global issues has
limits. Actors like the UN to have some autonomy from their members
There are 3UN’s- There’s three UN’s which are
Member states - UN isn’t anything for states to talk, and cooperate. It’s
just a state and what the UN is.
Secretariats/ Civil service - UN is an organization. It’s a buracracy even
though that the organization is controlled by member state. Within
develop ways, they in which they interact, develop issues, and
understand how the UN influences policies. If you have an organization,
they are part of the UN and can develop what the UN should be doing.
Informal networks that develop around the UN (Civil Society) They
are not part of the UN but connected to the UN. These network forms
around the UN that deal with a variety of issues that the UN is trying to
solve too. They participate in governing that is sponsored by the UN.
This is third source of autonomy. They alter what the UN does. Ex.
NGO’s, corporations, pushes the UN to do things. They interact with the
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