POLB91H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Vigilante

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Published on 15 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Political Science
Course
POLB91H3
Professor
Page:
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LECTURE 4
Military Intervention and Security
OUTLINE:
I. Causes of Military Intervention
II. The Military in Power
III. Bringing Dictators to Justice
IV. Crime, Violence and Insecurity
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I. Causes of Military Intervention
Coup d’etat: “strike at the state”; military takeover of power
1. The Nature of the Armed Force: explains the frequency and nature of military
intervention based on the internal characteristics of the military itself.
a) Origins of Officers: officers of humble origins are more likely to intervene in
politics on behalf of the interests of the people.
b) Training: officers whose training focuses on internal rather than external threats
are more likely to intervene.
c) Civic Action: Military personnel who participate in local development initiatives
are more likely to intervene in politics.
2. The Nature of Civilian Regimes: argues that military intervention is more likely in
weak political systems characterized by instability.
a) Political Institutions: when civilian governments enjoy wide-spread support are
legitimacy and there are effective channels of representation, military intervention
is unlikely.
b) Political Culture: societies which believe that democracy should be the only game
in town are less likely to support and tolerate coups.
c) Level of Development: poorer countries are more likely to suffer from military
takeovers. GNP per capital = less than $500 means successful coup attempts and
are successful; countries with GNP per capita that is greater than $3000 means no
coup attempts.
II. The Military in Power- Does military rule produce greater political stability
+socio-economic development?
1. Combating Corruption- we would give them a fail because they are more corrupt.
2. Establishing Stability- effective in the short-term but not very pleasant for the
citizens. In the long term there will be resentment by closing off the system.
3. Promoting Economic Development- semi-authoritarian East Asian Tigers. Might
be more of a mix depending on the military intervention in power. Accumulation
of debt was mostly under corrupt military regimes and this led to debt crisis.
Key point: the endurance of military governments depends largely on their
economic performance. In this respect, military regime can't survive for so long
and can be quickly undermined. Which is why there was a massive shift in
democracy in the 80s.
III. Bringing Dictators to Justice
Truth Commission: a commission tasked with discovering and revealing past
wrong doing by a military government.
Accountability Trials: the prosecution and sentencing of military personnel found
guilty of past crimes against humanity.
Why Aren’t More Dictators Tried and Convicted?
1. Ex- dictator often continue to have strong support from military + ruling
elites.
2. Many dictators negotiate their exemption from prosecution as a condition
of their withdrawal from politics.
3. Former dictators often justify their brutality due to political circumstances
or as necessary for economic development. (popular international support)
4. New civilian regimes attempt to consolidate their power by stressing the
need for national reconciliation and forgiveness. (less expensive)
5. New democracies are too fragile to confront ex-dictators.
Should outside intervention be relied upon to bring former dictators to justice?
IV. Crime, Violence and Insecurity
Paradoxes of Crime and Security
1. Public fears of crime are often unrelated to actual rates of crime.
2. As crime wars intensify and civilian controls are reduced and the police
are more likely to participate in crimes themselves rather than prevent
them.
3. Hard-line policing policies lead to an increase in citizen insecurity
Responses to Violence and Crime
1. Authoritarian or 'Zero Tolerance Policing': tough punishments for minor
infractions and hard-line policing without civilian oversight. We say it
doesn't work +leads to more insecurity.
2. Privately security forces: privately paid and controlled armed guards.
3. Fortified communities of the wealthy & privatized, enclosed and
monitored spaces of residence, consumption, leisure,+ work.
4. Vigilantism: self-appointed groups of citizens that maintain order.
Should we be concerned about the human rights abuses of alleged criminals?
Human Rights Abuses within the Criminal Justice System
1. Separation of categories prisoners: there is separate room for trial +those
convicted but in many countries in the south both live together due to lack
of space. Prisoner uprising in Brazil= 84 were pre-trial detainers
2. Over-crowding; minors are treated as adults, not enough sleep spaces.
What needs to be done to better combat crime and violence in the Global South?
Linkage to community service
Alternative sentencing (civic action), prison rehabilitation +training
programs
Investment in social services +welfare programs
Redistribution of wealth and oppurtunities
Better police pay +training (civilian oversight)
Grassroots human rights, educational campaign
Questions
1. What factors influence the likelihood of military intervention in 3rd world
politics?
2. What explains the success of some military regimes in developing their
countries' economies?
3. What are the possible political consequences of raising crime rates in the
Global South?

Document Summary

Gnp per capital = less than means successful coup attempts and are successful; countries with gnp per capita that is greater than means no coup attempts. The military in power- does military rule produce greater political stability. +socio-economic development: combating corruption- we would give them a fail because they are more corrupt, establishing stability- effective in the short-term but not very pleasant for the citizens. In the long term there will be resentment by closing off the system: promoting economic development- semi-authoritarian east asian tigers. Might be more of a mix depending on the military intervention in power. Accumulation of debt was mostly under corrupt military regimes and this led to debt crisis. Key point: the endurance of military governments depends largely on their economic performance. In this respect, military regime can"t survive for so long and can be quickly undermined. Which is why there was a massive shift in democracy in the 80s.