POLB91H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Limited Government, Arusha Accords, Scorched Earth

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Political Science
Course
POLB91H3
Professor
LECTURE 6:
Ethnic Conflict and Peace-Building I
I. Causes of Conflict
II. Costs of Conflict
III. Case Study: Rwanda
IV. Conflict Resolution
V. Tests Back!
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I. Causes of Conflict
Colonial Legacies: The process of European colonization set the stage for ethnic conflict
in some regions. E.g. problem of geographic proximity, divide and conquer
Deliberate Manipulation of Negative Stereotypes by Political Leaders: ethnic conflict is
often used by leaders to mobilize group support for their own political, economic and
social objectives.
Competition for Scarce Resources: in poor countries each ethnic group must compete for
limited government resources.
Economic Modernization: economic development creates winners and losers sometimes
along ethnic lines.
Weak Political Institutions: the inability of political institutions to effectively manage
differences ultimately result in violence.
Democratic Transitions: represents a major change in the status quo.
Proliferation of Weapons: the availability of weapons increases the chances for conflicts
among groups to escalate into violence.
II. Costs of Conflict
Human (casualties) –Land Mines 26,000 deaths. $300-$1000 to remove a land mine
but only $25 to buy one.
Economic –brain drain –repairing infrastructure –agriculture declines –foreign
investment declines
Political – damages civil society
Neighbouring Countries also Suffer –refugee flows
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Document Summary

Ethnic conflict and peace-building i: causes of conflict. Colonial legacies: the process of european colonization set the stage for ethnic conflict in some regions. E. g. problem of geographic proximity, divide and conquer. Deliberate manipulation of negative stereotypes by political leaders: ethnic conflict is often used by leaders to mobilize group support for their own political, economic and social objectives. Competition for scarce resources: in poor countries each ethnic group must compete for limited government resources. Economic modernization: economic development creates winners and losers sometimes along ethnic lines. Weak political institutions: the inability of political institutions to effectively manage differences ultimately result in violence. Democratic transitions: represents a major change in the status quo. Proliferation of weapons: the availability of weapons increases the chances for conflicts among groups to escalate into violence. - to remove a land mine but only to buy one. Economic brain drain repairing infrastructure agriculture declines foreign investment declines.

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