For unlimited access to Class Notes, a Class+ subscription is required.
POLB91H3 – LAST LECTURE 4/3/2012 8:05:00 AM
Urbanization of Informal Economy
Consequences of Rabid Urbanization
Global North: Many cities, many small towns,and major cities throughout the
Global South: ONE MEGACITY; everything focused on this megacity. 10 of
the 13 most overcrowded population is in the Global North. Mexico city
population is higher than Australia which is a country. 30 million in ONE city.
Handelman’s: Housing is number one priority in the Global South. Many in
Cairo, Egypt, live even in cemetery tombs. No space or resources to build
houses, many live on doorways. Moms and children sitting and hugging each
other and sleeping beside the door. Reality. Lots of issues to deal with
because of rapid urbanization.
POSITIVE CONSEQUENCES OF RAPID URBANIZATION
1.) Reduces Pressure on land/fragile ecosystems
2.) Produces economies of scale: easier for service provision; much cheaper
to provide services when everyone is living close together
3.) Smaller family sizes; people have fewer children in the cities;whether its
for lack of spaces, or increase jobs and education.
MANY MORE NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES OF RAPID URBANIZATION
1.) Sanitation and Hygiene Problems: Most governments don't provide these
services in terms of sewage, garbage collection, etc. Garbage and sewage
thrown about in Global south cities. In the outskirts of the megacities there
is no infrastructure, no water, no sewage, nothing. So people have to travel
to get water. Very expensive. People reuse water (dishwasher, laundry, etc)
2.) Leads to health outbreaks: Spread of disease and health problems
1990’s: Colera: Reusing Water: people live close together and there
becomes a pandemic.
Ecuador: Worked with kids; the kids are like we have no water;
how can we wash our hands; they live in dry areas; its not that
they don't want to stay clean, there is no water. Very disturbing.
3.) Growth of Shontytowns + Urban Sprawl
Find materials and build their own houses; and governments will
chase them around, or break it down. Fire hazards; mess of wires
to take electricity; no sanitation; quality of these houses are bad.
The houses get bulldozed over.
4.) Traffic Congestion/Pollution/Noise: Elima, Peru: Mega City: Walk down
the street you can smell the diesel: your like filled with black, your eyes
heart, your hair smells; respiratory problems. Noise pollution; Driving with
your hand on the horn: 2 in the morning people are honking. Chaos;
5.) High Rates of Crime and Insecurity
Own politics to survive and prosper
*WOULD YOU RATHER BE POOR IN THE CITY OR POOR IN THE COUNTRY
THE POLITICS OF THE URBAN POOR
Politics tends to be much more pragmatic political behavior
o Get what you can; individualistic ethic rather than mass
revolution or solution; best for THEMSELVES and FAMILY try
to get resoruces from state or political leaders
o Clientilism is BIG in the mega city so local politicians can
provide . Showing your support to a certain person.
Networking will allow you to get what you want. Reputation is
a credit card; using networks to get things done
o Main Focus : Housing
Legally build their own home, without being evicted or
chased around by government; Glass of Milk program;
Schooling or public works for individuals
Really trying to extract resources which powerful people
THE POLITICS OF THE RURAL POOR
Revolutionary in Nature
Focused on land
When they move from rural urban they change their mentality and the
way they act. Yet, the urban have closer access to government; knows how
system works; rural areas are isolated and cut out from it.
Urban Factory workers are in dense networks; and can extract resources; in
the rural are isolated.
DEMOCRACY VS. RAPID URBANIZATION
Good thing for democracy?
o Status Quo: More access to newspapers; read more about
politics more illiterate and more involved in politics
o Less revolutionary more pro democratic
o When the government provides so many resources they don't
need to fight
o Positive aspect for Democracy
INFORMAL HOUSING FOR THE URBAN POOR
Hernando de Soto (1989) “the other path: the invisible revolution in
the third world”
o Alternative Path: Invisible Revolution; the informal sector
o Hard for us to keep track
o Argument: how to address poverty in global south is give
legal property rights to the poor. (titles) Give them a
foundation on which to propser and secure them that way.
o Peasants being entitled to land; makes them less
revolutionary, Squatters: Housing (title to their housing)
o Informal business owners: give them legal ownership to
their business through license and registration: Give them
land; this makes them less revolutionary.
WHY is GIVING A TITLE SO IMPORTANT?
Process of establishing informal housing
o 1.) occupy the land
o 2.) Build Housing: cardboard, wood to erect temporary
o 3.) Acquire infrastructure: Ask others how they can get
facilities by creating a committee
o 4.) Seek Ownership: Petitiion the state to own title so they
don't have to worry being crashed down.
HERE in the GLOBAL NORTH: