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Lecture

Lecture Notes


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLB92H3
Professor
Lucan Way

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LECTURE 4
International effects and Europe
Review: Explaining Regimes
International Effects
Structural
oGlobal Balance of power
oGlobalization/spread of communication
Voluntarist
oSnowballing/Demonstration Effect
Spread of global communication
Cheap air travel (postwar)
Fax machines 1970s/1980s
1970s used to transmit photos around world
International cable TV
Internet, cell phones 1990s
Gradual increase in ease of communication
How is this structural?
Not in control of one individual
Focus on the fact that it isn't any single inventors invention, its
a diffuse phenomena around the world with many creators
More people involved, broader social process over many
countries that suggest that the choice of one individual isn't going to
start or stop it
Impact of Global Communications
Information into countries
Harder for countries to suppress information about Western
democracies
o2000s end of isolation
Information out of countries
Much harder to hide abuses
Then:
o1930s Stalin successfully suppresses information about
a man-made famine of 3 million
o1968 massacre of student protestors in Mexico City
hidden started by police or armed protestors?
Now:
Information comes out in real time 1993 bombing of
parliament in Russia
Why is it so important?
If its a smaller country you care more because you are
more dependent on the international realm
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It depends on how much leaders are dependent on
Western support
Depends on the regime
Makes being an autocrat much more difficult than before
Communications within countries
Organizing over internet in Ukraine in 2004
Easier to know what is happening at the computer than on-site
Global balance of power
Cold War 1947-1989
After World War II: US and USSR main powers (former Allies
in WWII)
oUS half of global indust. Goods
oSoviet economy destroyed but USSR largest defense
establishment in world; defeated Nazis
GNP in 1950 (1964 dollars)
US 381 billion
USSR 71 billion
UK 50 billion
France 48 billion
Impact of Cold War
Democracy in Western Europe
Communism in Eastern Europe
Everywhere else Cold War contributes to Western support of
authoritarianism
Soviet power = Communism in EE
Yalta and Potsdam conferences
Soviet controlled Polish government recognized
De facto Soviet control over Eastern Europe
Albania
Bulgaria
Czechoslovakia
East Germany
Hungary
Poland
Romania
Yugoslavia
Creation of Peoples Democracies" (Communist regimes in Western Europe)
Soviet economy destroyed after WWII
Imposition of Communist governments in Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria,
Czechoslovakia
Communist parties (except Yugo and Czechoslovakia) tiny
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1945-1947 coalition governments
oCommunist were one party among many different
parties
But then Communist takeover in 1947
Communist parties grow
oPolish Workers Party 20,000 ---> 300,000 1944
oHungarian Communist Party 2,000 ---> 864,000
Yugoslavia Impact of USSR less clear
Strong Communist movement led fight against Nazis
Communist by themselves were quite successful at defeating
the German army
Enormous victory over the source of the Nazi's
Why would Stalin prefer a weak communist party?
oSo that he would be able to control the entire country
Soviet Suppression of protest
East Germany 1953; Hungary 1956; Czechoslovakia 1968
Berlin wall 1961
USSR outside of Europe
Collapse of colonialism after 1945 ---> major battleground between
USSR/US
Soviet sphere of influence in Third World
USSR seen as model of economic development
Military advisors/equipment, cheap energy resources
North Korea 1950, Cuba 1960
Mozambique
oSupport for Leftist FRELIMO party in fight against
Portuguese Colonists in 1974/1975
Ethiopia
oSupport for Marxist-Leninist coup against Emperor
Selassie in 1974
In most cases, façade totalitarian regimes
oCountries that claimed to be communist, claimed to
have a command economy but in fact they were much weaker
oCountries not able to carry out rapid industrialization
like the Soviet Union
Fear of domino effect
Western policies in response to Communism
Cold War
Fear of Communist expansion
1948-49 Soviet blockade of Berlin
Mixed Impact
Fear of Communism --->
oDemocracy in Western Europe
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