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Lecture Notes

Political Science
Course Code
Lucan Way

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Origins of Democracy and Dictatorship
Review: Definitions of Democracy
oSubstantive/ Radical
Focus on OUTCOMES!
Multi-party elections
oLevel Playing field
Review: Procedural Definition of Democracy
1) Free and fair elections
2) Full adult suffrage everyone can vote
3) Elected governments must have the power to govern.
4) Broad protection of civil rights—including free speech, free press, and
freedom to organize and protest
5) Level playing field
Defining Competitive Authoritarianism
oHybrid regimes
Combines elements of democracy
oElections viewed as the primary means of gaining power
oElected leader (rather than military, clergy etc.) has real power
oNot a democracy:
Civil liberties violations
Electoral manipulation
Uneven playing field
oBut not a fully authoritarian regime:
Elections for executive remain competitive (if highly unfair)
oViable candidates allowed to run
oOpposition given some (de facto or legal) possibility to
openly campaign/appear in large audience media
oOvert vote stealing limited
oIncumbents sweat on election night
Explaining Regimes (International)
oCultural approaches
Political outcomes the outgrowth of long-standing values
Focus on values held by population as a whole
Dont look at interests or economic structure, looks at religion
(the values of the people)
oIdea that democracy is founded in a particular set of

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Describe theories which are rooted in the idea that political
outcomes are the longstanding values of people
Western democracy a product of Liberalism
oFocused on the individual over the collective
oDistrust in state
Focus on the individual
oNon-hierarchical ultimate authority rests with individual
oImportance of competition
oThese set of values are refereed to as liberalism, these believes
are what creates democracy
oYou have to instill these beliefs in individual in order to get
Protestantism and democracy
oProtestants first to translate bible into everyday language
Possible to relate to God individually through Bible
Salvation the responsibility of each individual
Non-hierarchical church
--> Liberal ideology rooted in individual
Democracy emerged out of these sets of values, thus creating
Catholics use to have Bible only in Latin
oMost could not read Latin need to rely on Church hierarchy
oSalvation partly through confession relies on church hierarchy
Anti-democratic traditions
Community more important than individual
Competition of ideas bad, there is only one truth
Strongly hierarchical ---> The Pope
Salvation was though confessions
Having to rely on others
oGroup over individual
oAgainst conflict
oStrong connection between church and state
Religion defines popular values, popular values in turn determines
whether or not a country is democratic or not
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