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Lecture 7

POLB92H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Congress, Presidential System, Authoritarianism


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLB92H3
Professor
Spyridon Kostivilis
Lecture
7

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Poli Sci and Modern Europe
Lecture 7: Authoritarianism and
Terror
Midterm
2-3 multiple choice
4-5 short answer
Study sheet on blackboard!
If he gives you a structuralism argument, argue the voluntarism rebuttal as
your answer. Answers will be found in the readings, so make a chart that
analyze the readings of the course. Know the lectures too.
Authoritarianism
Countries that are not democratic.
Democracy has free and fair elections, civil liberates, and universal adult
suffrage. Authoritarian regimes are the opposite.
oHybrid/ Competitive: Countries that are both democratic, but also
authoritarian in the fact that they may not have civil liberties.
oNormal Authoritarianism: The opposite of democracy (Cuba).
oTotalitarianism
Explanations of Authoritarianism
[Blue Structural, Red Voluntarist]
When discussing the Economic Development of Authoritarian countries,
we see that wealthy countries tend to be more democratic. As the world
urbanizes and becomes wealthier the number of democracy increases
(Modernization).
Modernization  In order to become wealthy a country needs to
industrialize. In order to industrialize they need to urbanize and be
educated to give people work skills. The rural population is usually much
more uneducated and harder to organize. Urbanization helps solve this
problem.
Polarization affects democracy in many ways as it adds threats of
violence and not rules. This turns living into a game of survival, so people
are not focused on what they should be.
Institutional Design states that what is written in the constitution affects
the political outcomes. Parliamentary regimes are therefore much more
suitable to making a stable democracy. Parliamentary regimes = Canada
(no fixed terms, no veto power to leader, etc.). Presidential system
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