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Reference Guide

Political Science - Reference Guides

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Political Science
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POLC42H3
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Political Science2 Political Science3 permacharts TM WHAT IS POLITICAL SCIENCE? THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM GOVERNMENT cont. • Political Science is the study of the processes and policies of The Left-Right Axes Horizontal Distribution m A dual executive is the division of two offices of government and its effect on society •Parliamentary functions of executive and state, the head of state (monarch or president) and the head of government (prime minister • Politics refers to the governance of the internal and external LEFT CENTER RIGHT legislative branches of government are affairs of a nation and how conflicting interests struggle for integrated; majority government refers to the and cabinet) E quality/Collectivism Hierarchy/Individualism governing party having a majority of seats in m A single executive refers to a single office dominance over the implementation of public policies w hich represents both the head of state and POLITICAL M arxism Social Democracy Progressive Conservative p arliament; minority government refers to the Communism Liberalism Fascism g overning party that has the largest share in the head of government HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE parliament but not the majority, and who can be • Bureaucratic: Consists of professionals who advise SCIENCE Socialism Capitalism politicians on the adoption and implementation C ONTRACTARIANISM defeated with a no-confidence vote by the of policies o pposition LEFT • Capitalism: Free market where means of •Presidential: Functions are separated into • Legislative: A chamber of elected representatives he study of political science increases Thomas Hobbes An English philosopher who wrote production are privately owned; bourgeoisie refers of the people (e.g., House of Representatives and T knowledge of issues concerning • Welfare State: A model in which the government branches of government (1588-1679) Leviathan (1651), in which he employs economic policies and social programs to to the owners of the means of production and • Semi-presidential: A combination of the House of Commons) that approve laws and governments, politics, and policies that argued that citizens enter a social protect the well being of its citizens proletariat the working class (because bills; legislatures are unicameral – one chamber - contract with the state and avoid parliamentary and presidential systems; has a or bicameral – two chambers define daily life. Through humanistic and • Socialism: Based on the collective good of society contemporary capitalist systems are usually mixed president and a prime minister dissent to maintain peace economies where private ownership coexists with • Central agencies: Organizations that assist the • Judicial: System of courts which interpret the law scientific perspectives, political science John Locke An English philosopher who rather than individual interest; characterized by an activist government, modern neoliberalism in unbiased manner in the event of dispute social and economic equality executive in areas of administration and public fosters global awareness by illustrating (1632-1704) suggested that citizens have the advocates reducing the role of government policy POWER how the allocation of power and right to rebel against illegitimate • Communism: Based on achieving a classless society; intervention) planned economy in which central authority BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT • Power: The exertion of control over an agent resources creates politically divergent governance controls the means of production CENTER • Coercion: The exertion of control over an agent by Jean-Jacques Rousseau A Franco-Swiss philosopher who • Executive: The head of government (e.g., societies. • Liberalism: An ideology that considers individual president or prime minister) which makes key threatoruseofpenalty,force,violence,orpunishment (1712-1778) published The Social Contract RIGHT decisions and enforces laws; parliamentary and • Influence: The exertion of control over an agent (1762), in which he proposed that • Conservatism: An ideology that considers authority liberty of primary value and is characterized by by use of persuasion and voluntary compliance peace can be maintained if a leader freedom of thought and equality; society based on semi-parliamentary systems have a dual of primary value and is characterized by the desire rule of law, a market economy, and liberal executive and presidential systems have a single • Authority: The exertion of control over an agent by governs according to the general to preserve traditional values; defends status quo executive reason of legitimacy; also called legitimate power will of all; acts as the foundation of democracy (modern liberalism also prescribes a democracy from political, economic, and social progressive considerable degree of state intervention) reform (also called neoconservatism) • Progressive: reflects desire for a political change REGIMES • Fascism: a single leader controls all social and for the good of society as a whole, particularly the LIBERTARIANISM economic facets of a state REGIME • Authoritarianism: A single leader possesses underprivileged; also referred to as radical complete authority over citizens; controls media and • The constitutional principles and arrangements Adam Smith A political economist who wrote according to which government decisions are made uses secret police to prevent dissent (e.g., China) (1723-1790) The Wealth of Nations (1776), in GOVERNMENT DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS • Totalitarianism: A single party, ruled by a leader, which he coined the term laissez- assumes complete control over political, social, faire to define an economic system GOVERNMENT TYPES OF CONSTITUTIONS • Democracy is a type of government in which state economic, and intellectual life, and coerces citizens based on free market and no • Government refers to authoritative bodies that • The distribution of power between levels of laws reflect the interest of the majority; occurs by make and implement public policies which govern to support its ideology (e.g., Nazism and communism) government intervention government occurs vertically and horizontally means of free elections where voters choose society between political parties NON-STATE GOVERNMENTS • Coalition government: A Vertical Distribution MARXISM • Confederal: A state formed by the Types of Democracies • Stateless governments are not recognized as majority government formed by being officially governed; includes traditional the combination of several union of several sovereign states; • Direct democracy: Citizens vote on government governments (e.g., Indigenous governments), Karl Marx A German philosopher, who, individual states are able to veto decisions directly parties, none of which has a decisions made by central government colonies, dependencies, and external territories (e.g., (1818-1883) together with Friedrich Engels, majority on its own • Representative democracy: Citizens vote on Puerto Rico), and failed states (e.g., Afghanistan) wrote The Communist Manifesto (e.g., the European Union) government decisions using elected representatives CONSTITUTION • State: A territorial unit that includes population (1848), in which they argued that • Federal: A state consisting of a m Liberal democracy: Government authority is and a sovereign government; there are overthrow of the capitalist system is • Constitution refers to the laws, federal government and several state exercised in accordance with laws, and citizens necessary to create a classless society written or unwritten, by which a governments; both levels of are guaranteed rights approximately 200 states • De jure: A recognized, newly formed state state is governed; regulations not government have equal power m Illiberal democracy: No effective limits on the power established in the constitution and (e.g., the United States) of elected representatives to rule as they please possessing the rights and responsibilities of a state under international law which are not legally enforceable • Unitary: A state ruled by a central NON-DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS are called conventions government which delegates power • De facto: An unrecognized, newly formed state • Dictatorship is a type of government which which is not legally established m Constitutions change through to lower-level governments (e.g., possesses absolute power over its citizens; evolution of conventions, judicial Japan) • Sovereignty: Authority and self-government over review, and formal amendment excessive force is used to control citizens, who a population and territory have few rights www.permacharts.com © 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. © 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. © 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. Political Science2 Political Science3 permacharts TM WHAT IS POLITICAL SCIENCE? THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM GOVERNMENT cont. • Political Science is the study of the processes and policies of The Left-Right Axes Horizontal Distribution m A dual executive is the division of two offices of government and its effect on society •Parliamentary functions of executive and state, the head of state (monarch or president) and the head of government (prime minister • Politics refers to the governance of the internal and external LEFT CENTER RIGHT legislative branches of government are affairs of a nation and how conflicting interests struggle for integrated; majority government refers to the and cabinet) E quality/Collectivism Hierarchy/Individualism governing party having a majority of seats in m A single executive refers to a single office dominance over the implementation of public policies w hich represents both the head of state and POLITICAL M arxism Social Democracy Progressive Conservative p arliament; minority government refers to the Communism Liberalism Fascism g overning party that has the largest share in the head of government HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE parliament but not the majority, and who can be • Bureaucratic: Consists of professionals who advise SCIENCE Socialism Capitalism politicians on the adoption and implementation C ONTRACTARIANISM defeated with a no-confidence vote by the of policies o pposition LEFT • Capitalism: Free market where means of •Presidential: Functions are separated into • Legislative: A chamber of elected representatives he study of political science increases Thomas Hobbes An English philosopher who wrote production are privately owned; bourgeoisie refers of the people (e.g., House of Representatives and T knowledge of issues concerning • Welfare State: A model in which the government branches of government (1588-1679) Leviathan (1651), in which he employs economic policies and social programs to to the owners of the means of production and • Semi-presidential: A combination of the House of Commons) that approve laws and governments, politics, and policies that argued that citizens enter a social protect the well being of its citizens proletariat the working class (because bills; legislatures are unicameral – one chamber - contract with the state and avoid parliamentary and presidential systems; has a or bicameral – two chambers define daily life. Through humanistic and • Socialism: Based on the collective good of society contemporary capitalist systems are usually mixed president and a prime minister dissent to maintain peace economies where private ownership coexists with • Central agencies: Organizations that assist the • Judicial: System of courts which interpret the law scientific perspectives, political science John Locke An English philosopher who rather than individual interest; characterized by an activist government, modern neoliberalism in unbiased manner in the event of dispute social and economic equality executive in areas of administration and public fosters global awareness by illustrating (1632-1704) suggested that citizens have the advocates reducing the role of government policy POWER how the allocation of power and right to rebel against illegitimate • Communism: Based on achieving a classless society; intervention) planned economy in which central authority BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT • Power: The exertion of control over an agent resources creates politically divergent governance controls the means of production CENTER • Coercion: The exertion of control over an agent by Jean-Jacques Rousseau A Franco-Swiss philosopher who • Executive: The head of government (e.g., societies. • Liberalism: An ideology that considers individual president or prime minister) which makes key threatoruseofpenalty,force,violence,orpunishment (1712-1778) published The Social Contract RIGHT decisions and enforces laws; parliamentary and • Influence: The exertion of control over an agent (1762), in which he proposed that • Conservatism: An ideology that considers authority liberty of primary value and is characterized by by use of persuasion and voluntary compliance peace can be maintained if a leader freedom of thought and equality; society based on semi-parliamentary systems have a dual of primary value and is characterized by the desire rule of law, a market economy, and liberal executive and presidential systems have a single • Authority: The exertion of control over an agent by governs according to the general to preserve traditional values; defends status quo executive reason of legitimacy; also called legitimate power will of all; acts as the foundation of democracy (modern liberalism also prescribes a democracy from political, economic, and social progressive considerable degree of state intervention) reform (also called neoconservatism) • Progressive: reflects desire for a political change REGIMES • Fascism: a single leader controls all social and for the good of society as a whole, particularly the LIBERTARIANISM economic facets of a state REGIME • Authoritarianism: A single leader possesses underprivileged; also referred to as radical complete authority over citizens; controls media and • The constitutional principles and arrangements Adam Smith A political economist who wrote according to which government decisions are made uses secret police to prevent dissent (e.g., China) (1723-1790) The Wealth of Nations (1776), in GOVERNMENT DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS • Totalitarianism: A single party, ruled by a leader, which he coined the term laissez- assumes complete control over political, social, faire to define an economic system GOVERNMENT TYPES OF CONSTITUTIONS • Democracy is a type of government in which state economic, and intellectual life, and coerces citizens based on free market and no • Government refers to authoritative bodies that • The distribution of power between levels of laws reflect the interest of the majority; occurs by make and implement public policies which govern to support its ideology (e.g., Nazism and communism) government intervention government occurs vertically and horizontally means of free elections where voters choose society between political parties NON-STATE GOVERNMENTS • Coalition government: A Vertical Distribution MARXISM • Confederal: A state formed by the Types of Democracies • Stateless governments are not recognized as majority government formed by being officially governed; includes traditional the combination of several union of several sovereign states; • Direct democracy: Citizens vote on government governments (e.g., Indigenous governments), Karl Marx A German philosopher, who, individual states are able to veto decisions directly parties, none of which has a decisions made by central government colonies, dependencies, and external territories (e.g., (1818-1883) together with Friedrich Engels, majority on its own • Representative democracy: Citizens vote on Puerto Rico), and failed states (e.g., Afghanistan) wrote The Communist Manifesto (e.g., the European Union) government decisions using elected representatives CONSTITUTION • State: A territorial unit that includes population (1848), in which they argued that • Federal: A state consisting of a m Liberal democracy: Government authority is and a sovereign government; there are overthrow of the capitalist system is • Constitution refers to the laws, federal government and several state exercised in accordance with laws, and citizens necessary to create a classless society written or unwritten, by which a governments; both levels of are guaranteed rights approximately 200 states • De jure: A recognized, newly formed state state is governed; regulations not government have equal power m Illiberal democracy: No effective limits on the power established in the constitution and (e.g., the United States) of elected representatives to rule as they please possessing the rights and responsibilities of a state under international law which are not legally enforceable • Unitary: A state ruled by a central NON-DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS are called conventions government which delegates power • De facto: An unrecognized, newly formed state • Dictatorship is a type of government which which is not legally established m Constitutions change through to lower-level governments (e.g., possesses absolute power over its citizens; evolution of conventions, judicial Japan) • Sovereignty: Authority and self-government over review, and formal amendment excessive force is used to control citizens, who a population and territory have few rights www.permacharts.com © 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. © 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. © 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. Political Science2 Political Science3 permacharts TM WHAT IS POLITICAL SCIENCE? THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM GOVERNMENT cont. • Political Science is the study of the processes and policies of The Left-Right Axes Horizontal Distribution m A dual executive is the division of two offices of government and its effect on society •Parliamentary functions of executive and state, the head of state (monarch or president) and the head of government (prime minister • Politics refers to the governance of the internal and external LEFT CENTER RIGHT legislative branches of government are affairs of a nation and how conflicting interests struggle for integrated; majority government refers to the and cabinet) E quality/Collectivism Hierarchy/Individualism governing party having a majority of seats in m A single executive refers to a single office dominance over the implementation of public policies w hich represents both the head of state and POLITICAL M arxism Social Democracy Progressive Conservative p arliament; minority government refers to the Communism Liberalism Fascism g overning party that has the largest share in the head of government HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE parliament but not the majority, and who can be • Bureaucratic: Consists of professionals who advise SCIENCE Socialism Capitalism politicians on the adoption and implementation C ONTRACTARIANISM defeated with a no-confidence vote by the of policies o pposition LEFT • Capitalism: Free market where means of •Presidential: Functions are separated into • Legislative: A chamber of elected representatives he study of political science increases Thomas Hobbes An English philosopher who wrote production are privately owned; bourgeoisie refers of the people (e.g., House of Representatives and T knowledge of issues concerning • Welfare State: A model in which the government branches of government (1588-1679) Leviathan (1651), in which he employs economic policies and social programs to to the owners of the means of production and • Semi-presidential: A combination of the House of Commons) that approve laws and governments, politics, and policies that argued that citizens enter a social protect the well being of its citizens proletariat the working class (because bills; legislatures are unicameral – one chamber - contract with the state and avoid parliamentary and presidential systems; has a or bicameral – two chambers define daily life. Through humanistic and • Socialism: Based on the collective good of society contemporary capitalist systems are usually mixed president and a prime minister dissent to maintain peace economies where private ownership coexists with • Central agencies: Organizations that assist the • Judicial: System of courts which interpret the law scientific perspectives, political science John Locke An English philosopher who rather than individual interest; characterized by an activist government, modern neoliberalism in unbiased manner in the event of dispute social and economic equality executive in areas of administration and public fosters global awareness by illustrating (1632-1704) suggested that citizens have the advocates reducing the role of government policy POWER how the allocation of power and right to rebel against illegitimate • Communism: Based on achieving a classless society; intervention) planned economy in which central authority BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT • Power: The exertion of control over an agent resources creates politically divergent governance controls the means of production CENTER • Coercion: The exertion of control over an agent by Jean-Jacques Rousseau A Franco-Swiss philosopher who • Executive: The head of government (e.g., societies. • Liberalism: An ideology that considers individual president or prime minister) which makes key threatoruseofpenalty,force,violence,orpunishment (1712-1778) published The Social Contract RIGHT decisions and enforces laws; parliamentary and • Influence: The exertion of control over an agent (1762), in which he proposed that • Conservatism: An ideology that considers authority liberty of primary value and is characterized by by use of persuasion and voluntary compliance peace can be maintained if a leader freedom of thought and equality; society based on semi-parliamentary systems have a dual of primary value and is characterized by the desire rule of law, a market economy, and liberal executive and presidential systems have a single • Authority: The exertion of control over an agent by governs according to the general to preserve traditional values; defends status quo executive reason of legitimacy; also called legitimate power will of all; acts as the foundation of democracy (modern liberalism also prescribes a democracy from political, economic, and social progressive considerable degree of state intervention) reform (also called neoconservatism) • Progressive: reflects desire for a political change REGIMES • Fascism: a single leader controls all social and for the good of society as a whole, particularly the LIBERTARIANISM economic facets of a state REGIME • Authoritarianism: A single leader possesses underprivileged; also referred to as radical complete authority over citizens; controls media and • The constitutional principles and arrangements Adam Smith A political economist who wrote according to which government decisions are made uses secret police to prevent dissent (e.g., China) (1723-1790) The Wealth of Nations (1776), in GOVERNMENT DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS • Totalitarianism: A single party, ruled by a leader, which he coined the term laissez- assumes complete control over political, social, faire to define an economic system GOVERNMENT TYPES OF CONSTITUTIONS • Democracy is a type of government in which state economic, and intellectual life, and coerces citizens based on free market and no • Government refers to authoritative bodies that • The distribution of power between levels of laws reflect the interest of the majority; occurs by make and implement public policies which govern to support its ideology (e.g., Nazism and communism) government intervention government occurs vertically and horizontally means of free elections where voters choose society between political parties NON-STATE GOVERNMENTS • Coalition government: A Vertical Distribution MARXISM • Confederal: A state formed by the Types of Democracies • Stateless governments are not recognized as majority government formed by being officially governed; includes traditional the combination of several union of several sovereign states; • Direct democracy: Citizens vote on government governments (e.g., Indigenous governments), Karl Marx A German philosopher, who, individual states are able to veto decisions directly parties, none of which has a decisions made by central government colonies, dependencies, and external territories (e.g., (1818-1883) together with Friedrich Engels, majority on its own • Representative democracy: Citizens vote on Puerto Rico), and failed states (e.g., Afghanistan) wrote The Communist Manifesto (e.g., the European Union) government decisions using elected representatives CONSTITUTION • State: A territorial unit that includes population (1848), in which they argued that • Federal: A state consisting of a m Liberal democracy: Government authority is and a sovereign government; there are overthrow of the capitalist system is • Constitution refers to the laws, federal government and several state exercised in accordance with laws, and citizens necessary to create a classless society written or unwritten, by which a governments; both levels of are guaranteed rights approximately 200 states
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