Class Notes (940,412)
CA (550,255)
UTSC (33,186)
POLC42H3 (1)
all (1)
Reference Guide

Political Science - Reference Guides

6 Pages
2854 Views
Likes

Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLC42H3
Professor
all

This preview shows pages 1-2. Sign up to view the full 6 pages of the document.
www.permacharts.com
2Political Science 3Political Science
THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM
LEFT
Welfare State: A model in which the government
employs economic policies and social programs to
protect the well being of its citizens
Socialism: Based on the collective good of society
rather than individual interest; characterized by
social and economic equality
Communism: Based on achieving a classless society;
planned economy in which central authority
controls the means of production
RIGHT
Conservatism: An ideology that considers authority
of primary value and is characterized by the desire
to preserve traditional values; defends status quo
from political, economic, and social progressive
reform (also called neoconservatism)
Fascism: a single leader controls all social and
economic facets of a state
Capitalism: Free market where means of
production are privately owned; bourgeoisie refers
to the owners of the means of production and
proletariat the working class (because
contemporary capitalist systems are usually mixed
economies where private ownership coexists with
an activist government, modern neoliberalism
advocates reducing the role of government
intervention)
CENTER
Liberalism: An ideology that considers individual
liberty of primary value and is characterized by
freedom of thought and equality; society based on
rule of law, a market economy, and liberal
democracy (modern liberalism also prescribes a
considerable degree of state intervention)
Progressive: reflects desire for a political change
for the good of society as a whole, particularly the
underprivileged; also referred to as radical
GOVERNMENT
GOVERNMENT
Government refers to authoritative bodies that
make and implement public policies which govern
society
Coalition government: A
majority government formed by
the combination of several
parties, none of which has a
majority on its own
CONSTITUTION
Constitution refers to the laws,
written or unwritten, by which a
state is governed; regulations not
established in the constitution and
which are not legally enforceable
are called conventions
m Constitutions change through
evolution of conventions, judicial
review, and formal amendment
TYPES OF CONSTITUTIONS
• The distribution of power between levels of
government occurs vertically and horizontally
Vertical Distribution
Confederal: A state formed by the
union of several sovereign states;
individual states are able to veto
decisions made by central government
(e.g., the European Union)
Federal: A state consisting of a
federal government and several state
governments; both levels of
government have equal power
(e.g., the United States)
Unitary: A state ruled by a central
government which delegates power
to lower-level governments (e.g.,
Japan)
GOVERNMENT cont.
Horizontal Distribution
Parliamentary functions of executive and
legislative branches of government are
integrated; majority government refers to the
governing party having a majority of seats in
parliament; minority government refers to the
governing party that has the largest share in
parliament but not the majority, and who can be
defeated with a no-confidence vote by the
opposition
Presidential: Functions are separated into
branches of government
Semi-presidential: A combination of
parliamentary and presidential systems; has a
president and a prime minister
Central agencies: Organizations that assist the
executive in areas of administration and public
policy
BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT
Executive: The head of government (e.g.,
president or prime minister) which makes key
decisions and enforces laws; parliamentary and
semi-parliamentary systems have a dual
executive and presidential systems have a single
executive
m A dual executive is the division of two offices of
state, the head of state (monarch or president)
and the head of government (prime minister
and cabinet)
m A single executive refers to a single office
which represents both the head of state and
the head of government
Bureaucratic: Consists of professionals who advise
politicians on the adoption and implementation
of policies
Legislative: A chamber of elected representatives
of the people (e.g., House of Representatives and
the House of Commons) that approve laws and
bills; legislatures are unicameral – one chamber -
or bicameral – two chambers
Judicial: System of courts which interpret the law
in unbiased manner in the event of dispute
POWER
Power: The exertion of control over an agent
Coercion: The exertion of control over an agent by
threat or use of penalty, force, violence, or punishment
Influence: The exertion of control over an agent
by use of persuasion and voluntary compliance
Authority: The exertion of control over an agent by
reason of legitimacy; also called legitimate power
REGIMES
REGIME
• The constitutional principles and arrangements
according to which government decisions are made
DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS
• Democracy is a type of government in which state
laws reflect the interest of the majority; occurs by
means of free elections where voters choose
between political parties
Types of Democracies
Direct democracy: Citizens vote on government
decisions directly
Representative democracy: Citizens vote on
government decisions using elected representatives
m Liberal democracy: Government authority is
exercised in accordance with laws, and citizens
are guaranteed rights
m Illiberal democracy: No effective limits on the power
of elected representatives to rule as they please
NON-DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS
• Dictatorship is a type of government which
possesses absolute power over its citizens;
excessive force is used to control citizens, who
have few rights
Authoritarianism: A single leader possesses
complete authority over citizens; controls media and
uses secret police to prevent dissent (e.g., China)
Totalitarianism: A single party, ruled by a leader,
assumes complete control over political, social,
economic, and intellectual life, and coerces citizens
to support its ideology (e.g., Nazism and communism)
NON-STATE GOVERNMENTS
• Stateless governments are not recognized as
being officially governed; includes traditional
governments (e.g., Indigenous governments),
colonies, dependencies, and external territories (e.g.,
Puerto Rico), and failed states (e.g., Afghanistan)
State: A territorial unit that includes population
and a sovereign government; there are
approximately 200 states
De jure: A recognized, newly formed state
possessing the rights and responsibilities of a
state under international law
De facto: An unrecognized, newly formed state
which is not legally established
Sovereignty: Authority and self-government over
a population and territory
WHAT IS POLITICAL SCIENCE?
Political Science is the study of the processes and policies of
government and its effect on society
Politics refers to the governance of the internal and external
affairs of a nation and how conflicting interests struggle for
dominance over the implementation of public policies
HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
CONTRACTARIANISM
LIBERTARIANISM
MARXISM
© 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. © 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.© 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
The study of political science increases
knowledge of issues concerning
governments, politics, and policies that
define daily life. Through humanistic and
scientific perspectives, political science
fosters global awareness by illustrating
how the allocation of power and
resources creates politically divergent
societies.
POLITICAL
SCIENCE
Thomas Hobbes
(1588-1679)
John Locke
(1632-1704)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
(1712-1778)
An English philosopher who wrote
Leviathan (1651), in which he
argued that citizens enter a social
contract with the state and avoid
dissent to maintain peace
An English philosopher who
suggested that citizens have the
right to rebel against illegitimate
governance
A Franco-Swiss philosopher who
published The Social Contract
(1762), in which he proposed that
peace can be maintained if a leader
governs according to the general
will of all; acts as the foundation of
democracy
Adam Smith
(1723-1790)
A political economist who wrote
The Wealth of Nations (1776), in
which he coined the term laissez-
faire to define an economic system
based on free market and no
government intervention
Karl Marx
(1818-1883)
A German philosopher, who,
together with Friedrich Engels,
wrote The Communist Manifesto
(1848), in which they argued that
overthrow of the capitalist system is
necessary to create a classless society
Marxism Social Democracy Progressive Conservative
Communism Liberalism Fascism
Socialism Capitalism
LEFT CENTER RIGHT
Equality/Collectivism Hierarchy/Individualism
The Left-Right Axes
TM
permacharts
www.permacharts.com
2Political Science 3Political Science
THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM
LEFT
Welfare State: A model in which the government
employs economic policies and social programs to
protect the well being of its citizens
Socialism: Based on the collective good of society
rather than individual interest; characterized by
social and economic equality
Communism: Based on achieving a classless society;
planned economy in which central authority
controls the means of production
RIGHT
Conservatism: An ideology that considers authority
of primary value and is characterized by the desire
to preserve traditional values; defends status quo
from political, economic, and social progressive
reform (also called neoconservatism)
Fascism: a single leader controls all social and
economic facets of a state
Capitalism: Free market where means of
production are privately owned; bourgeoisie refers
to the owners of the means of production and
proletariat the working class (because
contemporary capitalist systems are usually mixed
economies where private ownership coexists with
an activist government, modern neoliberalism
advocates reducing the role of government
intervention)
CENTER
Liberalism: An ideology that considers individual
liberty of primary value and is characterized by
freedom of thought and equality; society based on
rule of law, a market economy, and liberal
democracy (modern liberalism also prescribes a
considerable degree of state intervention)
Progressive: reflects desire for a political change
for the good of society as a whole, particularly the
underprivileged; also referred to as radical
GOVERNMENT
GOVERNMENT
Government refers to authoritative bodies that
make and implement public policies which govern
society
Coalition government: A
majority government formed by
the combination of several
parties, none of which has a
majority on its own
CONSTITUTION
Constitution refers to the laws,
written or unwritten, by which a
state is governed; regulations not
established in the constitution and
which are not legally enforceable
are called conventions
m Constitutions change through
evolution of conventions, judicial
review, and formal amendment
TYPES OF CONSTITUTIONS
• The distribution of power between levels of
government occurs vertically and horizontally
Vertical Distribution
Confederal: A state formed by the
union of several sovereign states;
individual states are able to veto
decisions made by central government
(e.g., the European Union)
Federal: A state consisting of a
federal government and several state
governments; both levels of
government have equal power
(e.g., the United States)
Unitary: A state ruled by a central
government which delegates power
to lower-level governments (e.g.,
Japan)
GOVERNMENT cont.
Horizontal Distribution
Parliamentary functions of executive and
legislative branches of government are
integrated; majority government refers to the
governing party having a majority of seats in
parliament; minority government refers to the
governing party that has the largest share in
parliament but not the majority, and who can be
defeated with a no-confidence vote by the
opposition
Presidential: Functions are separated into
branches of government
Semi-presidential: A combination of
parliamentary and presidential systems; has a
president and a prime minister
Central agencies: Organizations that assist the
executive in areas of administration and public
policy
BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT
Executive: The head of government (e.g.,
president or prime minister) which makes key
decisions and enforces laws; parliamentary and
semi-parliamentary systems have a dual
executive and presidential systems have a single
executive
m A dual executive is the division of two offices of
state, the head of state (monarch or president)
and the head of government (prime minister
and cabinet)
m A single executive refers to a single office
which represents both the head of state and
the head of government
Bureaucratic: Consists of professionals who advise
politicians on the adoption and implementation
of policies
Legislative: A chamber of elected representatives
of the people (e.g., House of Representatives and
the House of Commons) that approve laws and
bills; legislatures are unicameral – one chamber -
or bicameral – two chambers
Judicial: System of courts which interpret the law
in unbiased manner in the event of dispute
POWER
Power: The exertion of control over an agent
Coercion: The exertion of control over an agent by
threat or use of penalty, force, violence, or punishment
Influence: The exertion of control over an agent
by use of persuasion and voluntary compliance
Authority: The exertion of control over an agent by
reason of legitimacy; also called legitimate power
REGIMES
REGIME
• The constitutional principles and arrangements
according to which government decisions are made
DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS
• Democracy is a type of government in which state
laws reflect the interest of the majority; occurs by
means of free elections where voters choose
between political parties
Types of Democracies
Direct democracy: Citizens vote on government
decisions directly
Representative democracy: Citizens vote on
government decisions using elected representatives
m Liberal democracy: Government authority is
exercised in accordance with laws, and citizens
are guaranteed rights
m Illiberal democracy: No effective limits on the power
of elected representatives to rule as they please
NON-DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS
• Dictatorship is a type of government which
possesses absolute power over its citizens;
excessive force is used to control citizens, who
have few rights
Authoritarianism: A single leader possesses
complete authority over citizens; controls media and
uses secret police to prevent dissent (e.g., China)
Totalitarianism: A single party, ruled by a leader,
assumes complete control over political, social,
economic, and intellectual life, and coerces citizens
to support its ideology (e.g., Nazism and communism)
NON-STATE GOVERNMENTS
• Stateless governments are not recognized as
being officially governed; includes traditional
governments (e.g., Indigenous governments),
colonies, dependencies, and external territories (e.g.,
Puerto Rico), and failed states (e.g., Afghanistan)
State: A territorial unit that includes population
and a sovereign government; there are
approximately 200 states
De jure: A recognized, newly formed state
possessing the rights and responsibilities of a
state under international law
De facto: An unrecognized, newly formed state
which is not legally established
Sovereignty: Authority and self-government over
a population and territory
WHAT IS POLITICAL SCIENCE?
Political Science is the study of the processes and policies of
government and its effect on society
Politics refers to the governance of the internal and external
affairs of a nation and how conflicting interests struggle for
dominance over the implementation of public policies
HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
CONTRACTARIANISM
LIBERTARIANISM
MARXISM
© 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. © 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.© 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
The study of political science increases
knowledge of issues concerning
governments, politics, and policies that
define daily life. Through humanistic and
scientific perspectives, political science
fosters global awareness by illustrating
how the allocation of power and
resources creates politically divergent
societies.
POLITICAL
SCIENCE
Thomas Hobbes
(1588-1679)
John Locke
(1632-1704)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
(1712-1778)
An English philosopher who wrote
Leviathan (1651), in which he
argued that citizens enter a social
contract with the state and avoid
dissent to maintain peace
An English philosopher who
suggested that citizens have the
right to rebel against illegitimate
governance
A Franco-Swiss philosopher who
published The Social Contract
(1762), in which he proposed that
peace can be maintained if a leader
governs according to the general
will of all; acts as the foundation of
democracy
Adam Smith
(1723-1790)
A political economist who wrote
The Wealth of Nations (1776), in
which he coined the term laissez-
faire to define an economic system
based on free market and no
government intervention
Karl Marx
(1818-1883)
A German philosopher, who,
together with Friedrich Engels,
wrote The Communist Manifesto
(1848), in which they argued that
overthrow of the capitalist system is
necessary to create a classless society
Marxism Social Democracy Progressive Conservative
Communism Liberalism Fascism
Socialism Capitalism
LEFT CENTER RIGHT
Equality/Collectivism Hierarchy/Individualism
The Left-Right Axes
TM
permacharts

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Political Science2 Political Science3 permacharts TM WHAT IS POLITICAL SCIENCE? THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM GOVERNMENT cont. • Political Science is the study of the processes and policies of The Left-Right Axes Horizontal Distribution m A dual executive is the division of two offices of government and its effect on society •Parliamentary functions of executive and state, the head of state (monarch or president) and the head of government (prime minister • Politics refers to the governance of the internal and external LEFT CENTER RIGHT legislative branches of government are affairs of a nation and how conflicting interests struggle for integrated; majority government refers to the and cabinet) E quality/Collectivism Hierarchy/Individualism governing party having a majority of seats in m A single executive refers to a single office dominance over the implementation of public policies w hich represents both the head of state and POLITICAL M arxism Social Democracy Progressive Conservative p arliament; minority government refers to the Communism Liberalism Fascism g overning party that has the largest share in the head of government HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE parliament but not the majority, and who can be • Bureaucratic: Consists of professionals who advise SCIENCE Socialism Capitalism politicians on the adoption and implementation C ONTRACTARIANISM defeated with a no-confidence vote by the of policies o pposition LEFT • Capitalism: Free market where means of •Presidential: Functions are separated into • Legislative: A chamber of elected representatives he study of political science increases Thomas Hobbes An English philosopher who wrote production are privately owned; bourgeoisie refers of the people (e.g., House of Representatives and T knowledge of issues concerning • Welfare State: A model in which the government branches of government (1588-1679) Leviathan (1651), in which he employs economic policies and social programs to to the owners of the means of production and • Semi-presidential: A combination of the House of Commons) that approve laws and governments, politics, and policies that argued that citizens enter a social protect the well being of its citizens proletariat the working class (because bills; legislatures are unicameral – one chamber - contract with the state and avoid parliamentary and presidential systems; has a or bicameral – two chambers define daily life. Through humanistic and • Socialism: Based on the collective good of society contemporary capitalist systems are usually mixed president and a prime minister dissent to maintain peace economies where private ownership coexists with • Central agencies: Organizations that assist the • Judicial: System of courts which interpret the law scientific perspectives, political science John Locke An English philosopher who rather than individual interest; characterized by an activist government, modern neoliberalism in unbiased manner in the event of dispute social and economic equality executive in areas of administration and public fosters global awareness by illustrating (1632-1704) suggested that citizens have the advocates reducing the role of government policy POWER how the allocation of power and right to rebel against illegitimate • Communism: Based on achieving a classless society; intervention) planned economy in which central authority BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT • Power: The exertion of control over an agent resources creates politically divergent governance controls the means of production CENTER • Coercion: The exertion of control over an agent by Jean-Jacques Rousseau A Franco-Swiss philosopher who • Executive: The head of government (e.g., societies. • Liberalism: An ideology that considers individual president or prime minister) which makes key threatoruseofpenalty,force,violence,orpunishment (1712-1778) published The Social Contract RIGHT decisions and enforces laws; parliamentary and • Influence: The exertion of control over an agent (1762), in which he proposed that • Conservatism: An ideology that considers authority liberty of primary value and is characterized by by use of persuasion and voluntary compliance peace can be maintained if a leader freedom of thought and equality; society based on semi-parliamentary systems have a dual of primary value and is characterized by the desire rule of law, a market economy, and liberal executive and presidential systems have a single • Authority: The exertion of control over an agent by governs according to the general to preserve traditional values; defends status quo executive reason of legitimacy; also called legitimate power will of all; acts as the foundation of democracy (modern liberalism also prescribes a democracy from political, economic, and social progressive considerable degree of state intervention) reform (also called neoconservatism) • Progressive: reflects desire for a political change REGIMES • Fascism: a single leader controls all social and for the good of society as a whole, particularly the LIBERTARIANISM economic facets of a state REGIME • Authoritarianism: A single leader possesses underprivileged; also referred to as radical complete authority over citizens; controls media and • The constitutional principles and arrangements Adam Smith A political economist who wrote according to which government decisions are made uses secret police to prevent dissent (e.g., China) (1723-1790) The Wealth of Nations (1776), in GOVERNMENT DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS • Totalitarianism: A single party, ruled by a leader, which he coined the term laissez- assumes complete control over political, social, faire to define an economic system GOVERNMENT TYPES OF CONSTITUTIONS • Democracy is a type of government in which state economic, and intellectual life, and coerces citizens based on free market and no • Government refers to authoritative bodies that • The distribution of power between levels of laws reflect the interest of the majority; occurs by make and implement public policies which govern to support its ideology (e.g., Nazism and communism) government intervention government occurs vertically and horizontally means of free elections where voters choose society between political parties NON-STATE GOVERNMENTS • Coalition government: A Vertical Distribution MARXISM • Confederal: A state formed by the Types of Democracies • Stateless governments are not recognized as majority government formed by being officially governed; includes traditional the combination of several union of several sovereign states; • Direct democracy: Citizens vote on government governments (e.g., Indigenous governments), Karl Marx A German philosopher, who, individual states are able to veto decisions directly parties, none of which has a decisions made by central government colonies, dependencies, and external territories (e.g., (1818-1883) together with Friedrich Engels, majority on its own • Representative democracy: Citizens vote on Puerto Rico), and failed states (e.g., Afghanistan) wrote The Communist Manifesto (e.g., the European Union) government decisions using elected representatives CONSTITUTION • State: A territorial unit that includes population (1848), in which they argued that • Federal: A state consisting of a m Liberal democracy: Government authority is and a sovereign government; there are overthrow of the capitalist system is • Constitution refers to the laws, federal government and several state exercised in accordance with laws, and citizens necessary to create a classless society written or unwritten, by which a governments; both levels of are guaranteed rights approximately 200 states • De jure: A recognized, newly formed state state is governed; regulations not government have equal power m Illiberal democracy: No effective limits on the power established in the constitution and (e.g., the United States) of elected representatives to rule as they please possessing the rights and responsibilities of a state under international law which are not legally enforceable • Unitary: A state ruled by a central NON-DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS are called conventions government which delegates power • De facto: An unrecognized, newly formed state • Dictatorship is a type of government which which is not legally established m Constitutions change through to lower-level governments (e.g., possesses absolute power over its citizens; evolution of conventions, judicial Japan) • Sovereignty: Authority and self-government over review, and formal amendment excessive force is used to control citizens, who a population and territory have few rights www.permacharts.com © 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. © 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. © 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. Political Science2 Political Science3 permacharts TM WHAT IS POLITICAL SCIENCE? THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM GOVERNMENT cont. • Political Science is the study of the processes and policies of The Left-Right Axes Horizontal Distribution m A dual executive is the division of two offices of government and its effect on society •Parliamentary functions of executive and state, the head of state (monarch or president) and the head of government (prime minister • Politics refers to the governance of the internal and external LEFT CENTER RIGHT legislative branches of government are affairs of a nation and how conflicting interests struggle for integrated; majority government refers to the and cabinet) E quality/Collectivism Hierarchy/Individualism governing party having a majority of seats in m A single executive refers to a single office dominance over the implementation of public policies w hich represents both the head of state and POLITICAL M arxism Social Democracy Progressive Conservative p arliament; minority government refers to the Communism Liberalism Fascism g overning party that has the largest share in the head of government HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE parliament but not the majority, and who can be • Bureaucratic: Consists of professionals who advise SCIENCE Socialism Capitalism politicians on the adoption and implementation C ONTRACTARIANISM defeated with a no-confidence vote by the of policies o pposition LEFT • Capitalism: Free market where means of •Presidential: Functions are separated into • Legislative: A chamber of elected representatives he study of political science increases Thomas Hobbes An English philosopher who wrote production are privately owned; bourgeoisie refers of the people (e.g., House of Representatives and T knowledge of issues concerning • Welfare State: A model in which the government branches of government (1588-1679) Leviathan (1651), in which he employs economic policies and social programs to to the owners of the means of production and • Semi-presidential: A combination of the House of Commons) that approve laws and governments, politics, and policies that argued that citizens enter a social protect the well being of its citizens proletariat the working class (because bills; legislatures are unicameral – one chamber - contract with the state and avoid parliamentary and presidential systems; has a or bicameral – two chambers define daily life. Through humanistic and • Socialism: Based on the collective good of society contemporary capitalist systems are usually mixed president and a prime minister dissent to maintain peace economies where private ownership coexists with • Central agencies: Organizations that assist the • Judicial: System of courts which interpret the law scientific perspectives, political science John Locke An English philosopher who rather than individual interest; characterized by an activist government, modern neoliberalism in unbiased manner in the event of dispute social and economic equality executive in areas of administration and public fosters global awareness by illustrating (1632-1704) suggested that citizens have the advocates reducing the role of government policy POWER how the allocation of power and right to rebel against illegitimate • Communism: Based on achieving a classless society; intervention) planned economy in which central authority BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT • Power: The exertion of control over an agent resources creates politically divergent governance controls the means of production CENTER • Coercion: The exertion of control over an agent by Jean-Jacques Rousseau A Franco-Swiss philosopher who • Executive: The head of government (e.g., societies. • Liberalism: An ideology that considers individual president or prime minister) which makes key threatoruseofpenalty,force,violence,orpunishment (1712-1778) published The Social Contract RIGHT decisions and enforces laws; parliamentary and • Influence: The exertion of control over an agent (1762), in which he proposed that • Conservatism: An ideology that considers authority liberty of primary value and is characterized by by use of persuasion and voluntary compliance peace can be maintained if a leader freedom of thought and equality; society based on semi-parliamentary systems have a dual of primary value and is characterized by the desire rule of law, a market economy, and liberal executive and presidential systems have a single • Authority: The exertion of control over an agent by governs according to the general to preserve traditional values; defends status quo executive reason of legitimacy; also called legitimate power will of all; acts as the foundation of democracy (modern liberalism also prescribes a democracy from political, economic, and social progressive considerable degree of state intervention) reform (also called neoconservatism) • Progressive: reflects desire for a political change REGIMES • Fascism: a single leader controls all social and for the good of society as a whole, particularly the LIBERTARIANISM economic facets of a state REGIME • Authoritarianism: A single leader possesses underprivileged; also referred to as radical complete authority over citizens; controls media and • The constitutional principles and arrangements Adam Smith A political economist who wrote according to which government decisions are made uses secret police to prevent dissent (e.g., China) (1723-1790) The Wealth of Nations (1776), in GOVERNMENT DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS • Totalitarianism: A single party, ruled by a leader, which he coined the term laissez- assumes complete control over political, social, faire to define an economic system GOVERNMENT TYPES OF CONSTITUTIONS • Democracy is a type of government in which state economic, and intellectual life, and coerces citizens based on free market and no • Government refers to authoritative bodies that • The distribution of power between levels of laws reflect the interest of the majority; occurs by make and implement public policies which govern to support its ideology (e.g., Nazism and communism) government intervention government occurs vertically and horizontally means of free elections where voters choose society between political parties NON-STATE GOVERNMENTS • Coalition government: A Vertical Distribution MARXISM • Confederal: A state formed by the Types of Democracies • Stateless governments are not recognized as majority government formed by being officially governed; includes traditional the combination of several union of several sovereign states; • Direct democracy: Citizens vote on government governments (e.g., Indigenous governments), Karl Marx A German philosopher, who, individual states are able to veto decisions directly parties, none of which has a decisions made by central government colonies, dependencies, and external territories (e.g., (1818-1883) together with Friedrich Engels, majority on its own • Representative democracy: Citizens vote on Puerto Rico), and failed states (e.g., Afghanistan) wrote The Communist Manifesto (e.g., the European Union) government decisions using elected representatives CONSTITUTION • State: A territorial unit that includes population (1848), in which they argued that • Federal: A state consisting of a m Liberal democracy: Government authority is and a sovereign government; there are overthrow of the capitalist system is • Constitution refers to the laws, federal government and several state exercised in accordance with laws, and citizens necessary to create a classless society written or unwritten, by which a governments; both levels of are guaranteed rights approximately 200 states • De jure: A recognized, newly formed state state is governed; regulations not government have equal power m Illiberal democracy: No effective limits on the power established in the constitution and (e.g., the United States) of elected representatives to rule as they please possessing the rights and responsibilities of a state under international law which are not legally enforceable • Unitary: A state ruled by a central NON-DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS are called conventions government which delegates power • De facto: An unrecognized, newly formed state • Dictatorship is a type of government which which is not legally established m Constitutions change through to lower-level governments (e.g., possesses absolute power over its citizens; evolution of conventions, judicial Japan) • Sovereignty: Authority and self-government over review, and formal amendment excessive force is used to control citizens, who a population and territory have few rights www.permacharts.com © 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. © 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. © 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. Political Science2 Political Science3 permacharts TM WHAT IS POLITICAL SCIENCE? THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM GOVERNMENT cont. • Political Science is the study of the processes and policies of The Left-Right Axes Horizontal Distribution m A dual executive is the division of two offices of government and its effect on society •Parliamentary functions of executive and state, the head of state (monarch or president) and the head of government (prime minister • Politics refers to the governance of the internal and external LEFT CENTER RIGHT legislative branches of government are affairs of a nation and how conflicting interests struggle for integrated; majority government refers to the and cabinet) E quality/Collectivism Hierarchy/Individualism governing party having a majority of seats in m A single executive refers to a single office dominance over the implementation of public policies w hich represents both the head of state and POLITICAL M arxism Social Democracy Progressive Conservative p arliament; minority government refers to the Communism Liberalism Fascism g overning party that has the largest share in the head of government HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE parliament but not the majority, and who can be • Bureaucratic: Consists of professionals who advise SCIENCE Socialism Capitalism politicians on the adoption and implementation C ONTRACTARIANISM defeated with a no-confidence vote by the of policies o pposition LEFT • Capitalism: Free market where means of •Presidential: Functions are separated into • Legislative: A chamber of elected representatives he study of political science increases Thomas Hobbes An English philosopher who wrote production are privately owned; bourgeoisie refers of the people (e.g., House of Representatives and T knowledge of issues concerning • Welfare State: A model in which the government branches of government (1588-1679) Leviathan (1651), in which he employs economic policies and social programs to to the owners of the means of production and • Semi-presidential: A combination of the House of Commons) that approve laws and governments, politics, and policies that argued that citizens enter a social protect the well being of its citizens proletariat the working class (because bills; legislatures are unicameral – one chamber - contract with the state and avoid parliamentary and presidential systems; has a or bicameral – two chambers define daily life. Through humanistic and • Socialism: Based on the collective good of society contemporary capitalist systems are usually mixed president and a prime minister dissent to maintain peace economies where private ownership coexists with • Central agencies: Organizations that assist the • Judicial: System of courts which interpret the law scientific perspectives, political science John Locke An English philosopher who rather than individual interest; characterized by an activist government, modern neoliberalism in unbiased manner in the event of dispute social and economic equality executive in areas of administration and public fosters global awareness by illustrating (1632-1704) suggested that citizens have the advocates reducing the role of government policy POWER how the allocation of power and right to rebel against illegitimate • Communism: Based on achieving a classless society; intervention) planned economy in which central authority BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT • Power: The exertion of control over an agent resources creates politically divergent governance controls the means of production CENTER • Coercion: The exertion of control over an agent by Jean-Jacques Rousseau A Franco-Swiss philosopher who • Executive: The head of government (e.g., societies. • Liberalism: An ideology that considers individual president or prime minister) which makes key threatoruseofpenalty,force,violence,orpunishment (1712-1778) published The Social Contract RIGHT decisions and enforces laws; parliamentary and • Influence: The exertion of control over an agent (1762), in which he proposed that • Conservatism: An ideology that considers authority liberty of primary value and is characterized by by use of persuasion and voluntary compliance peace can be maintained if a leader freedom of thought and equality; society based on semi-parliamentary systems have a dual of primary value and is characterized by the desire rule of law, a market economy, and liberal executive and presidential systems have a single • Authority: The exertion of control over an agent by governs according to the general to preserve traditional values; defends status quo executive reason of legitimacy; also called legitimate power will of all; acts as the foundation of democracy (modern liberalism also prescribes a democracy from political, economic, and social progressive considerable degree of state intervention) reform (also called neoconservatism) • Progressive: reflects desire for a political change REGIMES • Fascism: a single leader controls all social and for the good of society as a whole, particularly the LIBERTARIANISM economic facets of a state REGIME • Authoritarianism: A single leader possesses underprivileged; also referred to as radical complete authority over citizens; controls media and • The constitutional principles and arrangements Adam Smith A political economist who wrote according to which government decisions are made uses secret police to prevent dissent (e.g., China) (1723-1790) The Wealth of Nations (1776), in GOVERNMENT DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS • Totalitarianism: A single party, ruled by a leader, which he coined the term laissez- assumes complete control over political, social, faire to define an economic system GOVERNMENT TYPES OF CONSTITUTIONS • Democracy is a type of government in which state economic, and intellectual life, and coerces citizens based on free market and no • Government refers to authoritative bodies that • The distribution of power between levels of laws reflect the interest of the majority; occurs by make and implement public policies which govern to support its ideology (e.g., Nazism and communism) government intervention government occurs vertically and horizontally means of free elections where voters choose society between political parties NON-STATE GOVERNMENTS • Coalition government: A Vertical Distribution MARXISM • Confederal: A state formed by the Types of Democracies • Stateless governments are not recognized as majority government formed by being officially governed; includes traditional the combination of several union of several sovereign states; • Direct democracy: Citizens vote on government governments (e.g., Indigenous governments), Karl Marx A German philosopher, who, individual states are able to veto decisions directly parties, none of which has a decisions made by central government colonies, dependencies, and external territories (e.g., (1818-1883) together with Friedrich Engels, majority on its own • Representative democracy: Citizens vote on Puerto Rico), and failed states (e.g., Afghanistan) wrote The Communist Manifesto (e.g., the European Union) government decisions using elected representatives CONSTITUTION • State: A territorial unit that includes population (1848), in which they argued that • Federal: A state consisting of a m Liberal democracy: Government authority is and a sovereign government; there are overthrow of the capitalist system is • Constitution refers to the laws, federal government and several state exercised in accordance with laws, and citizens necessary to create a classless society written or unwritten, by which a governments; both levels of are guaranteed rights approximately 200 states
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit