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Lecture 2

POL201 Lecture 2: POL201 Lecture 2 Notes.docx

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Political Science
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Abbas Gnamo

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May 20th, 2014
Imperialism, Colonialism, Decolonization, and Third Worldism
The Rise of Europe and Imperialism
-1942: two major developments
oDiscovery of the Americas by Christopher Columbus followed by population
movement motivated by Three G’s (Gold, God, Glory)
oThe defeat if the Arabs in Spain by Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand end of
their occupation after centuries of presence
-The end of feudalism (5th-15th centuries –Middle Ages) and the centralization of state
which laid the foundation for the creation of national states
-The development of mercantilism, the accumulation of Gold, silver, and slaves labour
connecting the 3 continents (The Americas, Europe and Africa) –The Atlantic Slave trade.
- Triangular Slave Trade (350 years)
-Geographical expansionism –mercantile phase of imperialism
-Enormous profits from seafaring and conquests –exploitation of technological backward
non-European people (ideological justified as ‘civilizing mission’)
-Slave trade; spice trade; precious metals, exotic goods,
-Mercantile Imperialism: primitive accumulation (Marx); booty capitalism (Weber)
Imperialism: the process through which a state attempts to control the economic and/or political
and cultural makeup of another state.
-Imperialism comes from the term of empire which essentially means domination
-Extension of political control
oPolicy of extending control over foreign entities to acquire and/or maintain
oImperialism is as old as the state
Colonialism: the most developed form of imperialism whereby the controlling state invades
another state/region so as to exploit its resources and/or for the purposes of large-scale
-Colonialism leads to occupation
-Extension of territorial control
oThrough either settler colonies of administrative dependencies: indigenous
population (in) directly ruled or displaced
oColonialism is one way of achieving more general goal of imperialism
Neo-colonialism (New Form of Colonialism): is the process by which the rich powerful,
developed states use economic, political and informal means to exert pressures on poor, less
powerful, underdeveloped states.
-Neo-colonialism means informal or indirect control, which came into use in the 1950’s
after European withdrawal from their colonies

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May 20th, 2014 POL201Y Imperialism, Colonialism, Decolonization, and Third Worldism The Rise of Europe and Imperialism - 1942: two major developments   o Discovery of the Americas by Christopher Columbus followed by population  movement motivated by Three G’s (Gold, God, Glory) o The defeat if the Arabs in Spain by Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand end of  their occupation after centuries of presence  - The end of feudalism (5 ­15  centuries –Middle Ages) and the centralization of state  which laid the foundation for the creation of national states - The development of mercantilism, the accumulation of Gold, silver, and slaves labour  connecting the 3 continents (The Americas, Europe and Africa) –The Atlantic Slave trade.  ­ Triangular Slave Trade (350 years) - Geographical expansionism –mercantile phase of imperialism  - Enormous profits from seafaring and conquests –exploitation of technological backward  non­European people (ideological justified as ‘civilizing mission’) - Slave trade; spice trade; precious metals, exotic goods, - Mercantile Imperialism: primitive accumulation (Marx); booty capitalism (Weber) Imperialism: the process through which a state attempts to control the economic and/or political  and cultural makeup of another state.  - Imperialism comes from the term of empire which essentially means domination - Extension of political control o Policy of extending control over foreign entities to acquire and/or maintain  empires o Imperialism is as old as the state  Colonialism: the most developed form of imperialism whereby the controlling state invades  another state/region so as to exploit its resources and/or for the purposes of large­scale  immigration  - Colonialism leads to occupation - Extension of territorial control  o Through either settler colonies of administrative dependencies: indigenous  population (in) directly ruled or displaced  o Colonialism is one way of achieving more general goal of imperialism Neo­colonialism (New Form of Colonialism): is the process by which the rich powerful,  developed states use economic, political and informal means to exert pressures on poor, less  powerful, underdeveloped states. - Neo­colonialism means informal or indirect control, which came into use in the 1950’s  after European withdrawal from their colonies - Freedom was simply nominal Colonialism and the ‘Imperial Age’ Process was both extensive (in many parts of the world) and intensive Where: European Empires in the Americas, South and South East Asia, and Africa Who: Spain, Portugal, Britain, France, Holland, Belgium, and to a certain extent Germany and  Italy th When: era of exploitation from the late 15  Century – Colonial empires reach their peak in the  19  Century, formal independence comes mostly after WWII How: underpinned by superior military might and apparatus for control –threat and use of  violence never far from the surface  Why: motivated by economic interests (new materials to be exploited)  The Motives of European Colonialism  The Economic Theory  - Hobson (liberal), overproduction, surplus capital, under­consumption in the industrialized  countries led them to a policy of political expansion  - Lenin’s Theory of Monopoly Capitalism: “Imperialism is the highest stage of capitalism”  - Social Darwinism, emphasizing the alleged superiority of European race over other races  “natural election” and the “survival of the fittest”  - Evangelical Christianity – a broader humanitarian and missionary impulse to westernize  the African people.   o People who felt that they had to expand Christianity  - Social atavism – imperialism was a result of a natural desire of man to dominate his  fellow man for the sake of dominating him, arising out of man’s universal thirst for power  a
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