Class Notes (905,832)
CA (538,520)
UTSC (32,637)
POLC99H3 (33)
R Rice (28)
Lecture

Lecture 2

5 Pages
114 Views

Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLC99H3
Professor
R Rice

This preview shows pages 1-2. Sign up to view the full 5 pages of the document.
POLC99 Lecture 2 January 11
Latin America in Historical + Political Perspectives
Pre-colonial Society and Power Structures
Mayas
-Southern Mexico and Guatemala. They had independent city-states with
major cities. King, nobles and priest on top and common people on the
bottom.
-Organization was top-down and authoritarian. Known for scientific
accomplishments such as mathematics, astronomy, they invented the
calendar.
-We never really know what happened but its thought that invading tribes
from the north destroyed the Maya civilization.
Aztecs
-Mexicos central valley. Displaced Toltecs who were displaced and attacked
the Mayas.
-Known for their military power. Major city was Tenochtitlan in 1325.
-Organization was rigidly stratified, centralized power. Slaves at the bottom
and hereditary lords at the top. Rulers ruled despotically.
Incas
-Andes of South America with the heart in todays Peru. Ran from Colombia to
Peru. They invited the local nobles and getting their support and then
integrated their tribes into Incas. Inca was a semi-god (Inti). Incas were
known for empire building.
-Organization: highly centralized bureaucracy. They were able to command a
big region.
Decentralized Societies
-The Amazon Rainforest: hunter-gatherers, nomadic societies.
-Mapuche people of Southern Chile. They have territorial identities. They did
not have a centralized power structure; hence they were impossible to
conquer for conquistadors.
-Spain signed an agreement with the Mapuche people in 1641 recognizing
Mapuche territory below the Biobío River.
-Mapuche were never conquered until Chile became independent from Spain
in 1810 when Chile forced Mapuche people off of their land into reserves.
Conquest + Colonial Society
Hernan Cortes arrived in Mexico in 1519. Francisco Pizarro arrived in Peru in 1532.
1
www.notesolution.com
POLC99 Lecture 2 January 11
-30—70 million people were killed on the onset from disease and conflicts
-Conquistadors infiltrated the power structure by removing the leaders of
Incas, Mayas and Aztecs and installing loyal people instead.
-
How can 700 Spaniards subdue 70 million people?
-Superior military armaments (firepower, horses, etc) and technology
-Disease from Europe
-Alliances against competing indigenous groups: divide and conquer
-Malinche: A Nahua (Aztec) woman was captured by Mayans and was
presented as a slave to Hernan Cortes and came to be a mistress and
interpreter, adviser and intermediary between the groups. Her child was the
first Métis (Spanish and Indigenous).
-Spaniards and the Portuguese had honed their fighting skills in the 700-year
conquest of Iberia (Spain and Portugal connected through he Iberia
peninsula).
-Spaniards as gods or semi-gods and were initially reluctant to destroy them.
-Indigenous peoples were used to be brutalized and ruled by a despotic leader.
They were used to being at the very bottom of the pyramid so it didnt shake
up their every day lives all that much. They were used to being obedient and
reluctant to resist due to rigid hierarchical structure of power.
Legacies of Colonial Society
-The changing face of people in Latin America. 3 ethnic groups: indigenous
peoples, Africans and Europeans.
-Social pyramid:
Europeans at the top: 2%
Peninsulares: white born in Europe (Spain/Portugal)
Criollos/creoles: whites born in the new world
Mestizos: Indigenous and European ancestry
Mulatto: African and European ancestry, they were considered even
worse than pure Africans since they inherited the worst of genes.
Indigenous and African: 95%.
Contemporary Latin America
-Upper class: 5%10% (descendants of the Europeans)
-Middle Class: 10%25% (mixed ancestry, immigrants from other countries)
-Lower Class: 65%85% (Mulato, Africans).
-Your status is largely determined by your race. You can whiten yourself by
becoming an actor or a soccer star, by attaining status in society, fame
through the military, etc.
2
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
POLC99 Lecture 2 January 11 Latin America in Historical + Political Perspectives Pre-colonial Society and Power Structures Mayas - Southern Mexico and Guatemala. They had independent city-states with major cities. King, nobles and priest on top and common people on the bottom. - Organization was top-down and authoritarian. Known for scientific accomplishments such as mathematics, astronomy, they invented the calendar. - We never really know what happened but its thought that invading tribes from the north destroyed the Maya civilization. Aztecs - Mexicos central valley. Displaced Toltecs who were displaced and attacked the Mayas. - Known for their military power. Major city was Tenochtitlan in 1325. - Organization was rigidly stratified, centralized power. Slaves at the bottom and hereditary lords at the top. Rulers ruled despotically. Incas - Andes of South America with the heart in todays Peru. Ran from Colombia to Peru. They invited the local nobles and getting their support and then integrated their tribes into Incas. Inca was a semi-god (Inti). Incas were known for empire building. - Organization: highly centralized bureaucracy. They were able to command a big region. Decentralized Societies - The Amazon Rainforest: hunter-gatherers, nomadic societies. - Mapuche people of Southern Chile. They have territorial identities. They did not have a centralized power structure; hence they were impossible to conquer for conquistadors. - Spain signed an agreement with the Mapuche people in 1641 recognizing Mapuche territory below the Biobo River. - Mapuche were never conquered until Chile became independent from Spain in 1810 when Chile forced Mapuche people off of their land into reserves. Conquest + Colonial Society Hernan Cortes arrived in Mexico in 1519. Francisco Pizarro arrived in Peru in 1532. 1 www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit