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Lecture 2

POL201 Lecture 2: POL201 Lecture 2 Notes.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLC90H3
Professor
Abbas Gnamo

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Description
May 20th, 2014 POL201Y Imperialism, Colonialism, Decolonization, and Third Worldism The Rise of Europe and Imperialism - 1942: two major developments   o Discovery of the Americas by Christopher Columbus followed by population  movement motivated by Three G’s (Gold, God, Glory) o The defeat if the Arabs in Spain by Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand end of  their occupation after centuries of presence  - The end of feudalism (5 ­15  centuries –Middle Ages) and the centralization of state  which laid the foundation for the creation of national states - The development of mercantilism, the accumulation of Gold, silver, and slaves labour  connecting the 3 continents (The Americas, Europe and Africa) –The Atlantic Slave trade.  ­ Triangular Slave Trade (350 years) - Geographical expansionism –mercantile phase of imperialism  - Enormous profits from seafaring and conquests –exploitation of technological backward  non­European people (ideological justified as ‘civilizing mission’) - Slave trade; spice trade; precious metals, exotic goods, - Mercantile Imperialism: primitive accumulation (Marx); booty capitalism (Weber) Imperialism: the process through which a state attempts to control the economic and/or political  and cultural makeup of another state.  - Imperialism comes from the term of empire which essentially means domination - Extension of political control o Policy of extending control over foreign entities to acquire and/or maintain  empires o Imperialism is as old as the state  Colonialism: the most developed form of imperialism whereby the controlling state invades  another state/region so as to exploit its resources and/or for the purposes of large­scale  immigration  - Colonialism leads to occupation - Extension of territorial control  o Through either settler colonies of administrative dependencies: indigenous  population (in) directly ruled or displaced  o Colonialism is one way of achieving more general goal of imperialism Neo­colonialism (New Form of Colonialism): is the process by which the rich powerful,  developed states use economic, political and informal means to exert pressures on poor, less  powerful, underdeveloped states. - Neo­colonialism means informal or indirect control, which came into use in the 1950’s  after European withdrawal from their colonies - Freedom was simply nominal Colonialism and the ‘Imperial Age’ Process was both extensive (in many parts of the world) and intensive Where: European Empires in the Americas, South and South East Asia, and Africa Who: Spain, Portugal, Britain, France, Holland, Belgium, and to a certain extent Germany and  Italy th When: era of exploitation from the late 15  Century – Colonial empires reach their peak in the  19  Century, formal independence comes mostly after WWII How: underpinned by superior military might and apparatus for control –threat and use of  violence never far from the surface  Why: motivated by economic interests (new materials to be exploited)  The Motives of European Colonialism  The Economic Theory  - Hobson (liberal), overproduction, surplus capital, under­consumption in the industrialized  countries led them to a policy of political expansion  - Lenin’s Theory of Monopoly Capitalism: “Imperialism is the highest stage of capitalism”  - Social Darwinism, emphasizing the alleged superiority of European race over other races  “natural election” and the “survival of the fittest”  - Evangelical Christianity – a broader humanitarian and missionary impulse to westernize  the African people.   o People who felt that they had to expand Christianity  - Social atavism – imperialism was a result of a natural desire of man to dominate his  fellow man for the sake of dominating him, arising out of man’s universal thirst for power  a
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