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Lecture 8

Lecture 8.docx

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Political Science
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Judith Teichman

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POLC91 November 8, 2012 Lecture 8 Debt, Military Dictatorship and Economic Crisis -Dictatorships started to emerge from 60’s onwards - US was involved in attempting to militarily defeat guerilla insurgencies, as we saw last week -military in LA has been involved in politics for a very long time; struggles for independence, and had become an imp’t actor -military take over of the state was a recurrent phenomena in LA -in some cases they would be in power for a few years and then turn the power back over to civilians; but starting in 60s the trends changed -the military take overs took many more years ; in Chile for example was 20 years -wasn’t just strong man leadership, but military as an inst was taking over the state -they would head ministries and departments throughout the state -there was a predominance of what was called the national security doctrine -this doctrine was very much concerned with communist subversion -it took the position that these countries were involved in a process of total war -domestic or int’l forces of subversion were intervening in domestic processes and subverting the nation -b/c int’l subversion as attacking the nation then the military were the logical defenders of the nation -military were often educated in the US, where they were inculcated with the basic premises of the nat’l security doctrine, but the military was very receptive to the doctrine for diff reasons -military ppl are usually quite conservative and strongly in a notion of hierarchy and order, and don’t take kindly to political unrest, strikes etc., and tend to feel uncomfortable with the messiness of democracy -in the later years of populist regimes these regimes were falling apart, there was economic problems and unrest, and the military did not want to tolerate this -populist politics tend to be on the corrupt side, there was no strong mech’s of accountability and so military leaders were adverse to this kind of politics -the military developed a loathing for leftist causes; wanted to put an end to political upheaval and the messiness of democratic process -military often developed a skewed view of what was going on in there society; they were often isolated from the realities of the society, only socialized with each other, married each other, and generations of families would be in the military so they were not aware of what was going on in rural areas, or the degree to how bad poverty was, etc -didn’t understand how best to handle the political upheaval that there countries were experiencing 1 Operation condor -est 1975 by head of Chilean security and was a loosely knit network that brought together all of the security forces from members (Paraguay, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay, and Argentina) countries and agencies of the US gov’t -one of its main purposes was to share intelligence -was to enable countries to retrieve political opposition ppl who had left their country and fled to another LA country -was also noted for political assassinations of prominent political leaders -some fled to the US and this was when the US became involved -in 1993-93 there was a bunch of documents that were unearthed in Paraguay, and these documents were full of communications btwn LA security forces about going after ppl -US interests were able to find willing allies within these countries; US involvement wasn’t just in the coups themselves, but it also continued to be involved after the coups in the tracking down of opposition ind’s Int’l context -1974; increase in petroleum prices on int’l market – those in the southern cone were importing petroleum, so this created problems with tem -1982 – the int’l debt crisis – LA countries were some of the most heavily indebted (and some of this was b/c of petroleum prices) -the “lost decade” – for LA during the 1980’s – b/c of poverty which increased dramatically during this time and inequality rises as well, and there was no growth -in addition to int’l factors there was also some domestic processes that explained why there was a rise in dictatorships Guillermo O’Donnell and the concept of Military Bureaucratic authoritarianism (domestic factors behind the coups) -Modernization and bureaucratic authoritarianism – book published in 1972 -rep’d a blend of NA socialism (?) and Marxism -concept was developed by looking at Brazil coup in 1964 and Argentina in 1966 -one of the features was modernization, urbanization, and industrialization was not leading to democratization, it was leading to political chaos (“mass praetorianism”) -as a starting point took the populous period and pointed out that there was political unrest b/c ISI was exhausted, no more wage increases, there was demonstrations and strikes, and this was what he characterized as political chaos -in this situation there would be a new agreement btwn elite groups: the military, the private sector and the gov’t -they decided that something needs to be done -their particular concern was with the failure of economic policy under populist gov’ts they wanted a new economic strategy -b/c of the economic failures of populist that they would have to undergo painful policy changes 2 -there was a demand performance gap – the public was demanding things like improved wages and living conditions, and the gov’t could no longer deliver b/c economic growth had stagnated to solve this problem they ended populist politics; was necessary to demobilize all the ppl that had been mobilized during previous populist period -necessary to do this b/c you need investment, and they concluded that countries didn’t have domestically the funds to carry out what was needed, so they needed FDI -were not going to get FDI with all of the political unrest; they don’t want to invest in places where there are factory take overs and strikes, they want a stable investment climate -IMF loans come with stipulat
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