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Lecture 2

Political Science
Course Code
Susan Solomon

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September 21
, 2010
-Hirschman says exit is faceless, meaning anonymous
-Hirschman says exit is rational, rationality means doing what’s good for you and the
individual, and exit is rational for the unit as well
-when he takes about exit he seems to assume that there is a single definition for
rationality for the individual and the unit under certain conditions
-if everyone exits in a unit then the unit will fall because there is no business and it does
not help the situation because the business will close down
-Slack: some alert customers and some inert customers are necessary for a strategy for
recovery. Slack is good economically
-Voice is not faceless, it requires choice of strategy, it is very political
-when you exit you leave to make things better for you and voice changes the conditions
for not only you but other citizens
-The theory of slack politically: in a democracy their should be a bit of slack, not all
citizens should be fully engaged/alert because if there is a crisis people can be mobilized,
Solomon disagrees
-There are some situations where you cannot exit for example church, family, state, etc.
they don’t always let you out easily
-One can exit the state sometimes imperfectly
-Can exit and voice work together? Brubaker article: exit and voice worked together in
the case of east and West Germany
-the possibility of exit makes voice more heard, if you can’t get your point across with
voice there is the option of exit
-Hirschman says if you protest first you can always leave, but if you exit first you don’t
have the opportunity to use voice, but it can be criticized
-the voice option has costs with strategy
-you need both spineless and people with spine; those who stay have no spine and those
who leave have a spine
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