POLD70H3 Lecture Notes - Theda Skocpol, Napoleon Iii, Maximilien Robespierre

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Published on 15 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Political Science
Course
POLD70H3
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The French revolution and 1848
Review of French Revolution
Comparing voluntarist and structuralist approaches to French revolution
Events of 1848
Causes of 1848
Explaining Revolutions
I. Structural theories
A. Economic Theories
Marxist theory of revolution
B. State-centered theory of revolution
Theda Skocpol
II. Voluntarist theories
A. Organizational skill of revolutionary elite/leader
Skocpol’s theory of revolution
3 key components to the theory:
1. Weak states dominated by Landed Gentry
2. International pressures
3. Rebellious Peasantry
Skocpol
1. Weak agrarian states face modernization crises.
2. States increasingly fell behind militarily, and in many cases, the lost wars.
3. Efforts at reform split upper classes and state leaders
4. Divisions/Defeat in war opportunity for revolution
4. Where peasant solidarity and autonomy existed,
5. Where an urban revolutionary elite could attach itself to these peasant insurrections, you got revolution.
Problems with Skocpol
(1) Leadership
Someone must effectively articulate or sell a revolutionary project to the masses
(2) Ideology.
How can we understand Iran without Islam?
The French Revolution
The Old Regime
3 Estates
Nobility
Warriors
Military made up of mercenaries, serfs and nobility
Church
Large amounts of land
Chosen by Rome
Third Estate
Everyone else
Guilds
Old Regime
Absolute monarchy
No formal restrictions on state power
No laws: Responsible only to God
But de facto decentralization of power
Venal offices
50,000 offices in 1789
Army tied to nobility
Privileges:
large sections of French wealth could not be taxed: church/nobility
Fiscal problems
French revolution Phase I:
Creation of Constit. Monarchy
Expensive wars (7 years war, US independence) bankruptcy
1787 Parlement of Paris refuses to register stamp and land tax parl exiled by King
Other parlements support Paris
King calls Estates-General as part of compromise to raise taxes
2X for 3rd estate but still vote by order
Battle over voting by order/estate or by head
Refusal by king leads to revolt by Third Estate – Tennis Court Oath
National Assembly created
French Revolution Phase I
Breakdown of the State
Louis XVI no longer controls military: storming of Bastille
Peasant revolts
Attacked chateaux
Burned title deeds specifying obligations
Rise of Political society
Jacobin clubs (formed from National Assembly)
Sanscullotes (knee breaches) – opposition to unearned wealth
Highly egalitarian
Creation of Constitutional Monarchy
1789 reforms by National Assembly
Creation of a National Church
Transfer of church land to state; elimination of church tithes
abolition of sale of offices
Privileges renounced
Declaration of Rights of Man
1791 Constitutional Monarchy created
“active” vs. “passive” citizens: Vote based on wages

Document Summary

Review of french revolution: comparing voluntarist and structuralist approaches to french revolution. Marx: gigantic broom of revolution swept away mediaeval rubbish, seignorial rights, local privileges, municipal and guild monopolies and provincial constitutions . 5 october 2009: review of lecture, review of french revolution, comparing voluntarist and structuralist approaches to french revolution. 3 key components to the theory: weak states dominated by landed gentry. Military made up of mercenaries, serfs and nobility: church. Large sections of french wealth could not be taxed: church/nobility. Expensive wars (7 years war, us independence) bankruptcy. 1787 parlement of paris refuses to register stamp and land tax parl exiled by king. King calls estates-general as part of compromise to raise taxes. 2x for 3rd estate but still vote by order. Battle over voting by order/estate or by head. Refusal by king leads to revolt by third estate tennis court oath. Louis xvi no longer controls military: storming of bastille.