POLD89H3 Lecture Notes - United Nations Global Compact, Perfect Competition, Latin Alphabet

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2 Sep 2013
The Concept of Global Governance
- Actors beyond the state that can influence societies
- “politics above the state”
- Displacing international relations
- Empirically: the effects of globalization
- “the effect of globalization forces us to use the term global governance
- UN GLOBAL CONTACT: maintain sustainable development
o Different actors come together to establish the goal from their different states
- Ex. Developing countries need to go under state adjustments to receive aid, which is an infringement on the
sovereignty of that state
- The concept of sovereignty was born in 1648, Treaty of Westphalia to end conflicts
o Birthed the modern sovereign state
Q. Is the role of the state changing? How?
Yes, the state is losing its hegemonic role on control over its state from the interrelations with inter-
governmental organizations. States are less independent because of the rising globalization of goods essential for living
and living at the comfortable state of some societies.
Chapter 2:
1) Hierarchies
- Relies on centralized control and authority (Ex. Bureaucracies)
- Most rational means of organization
- Central authority resides over subordinates subordinates who have responsibilities
o “Top-Down System
- Drawbacks:
o Ineffective and time-constraining,
o no room to innovation
2) Networks
- In theory, are hybrids
- Bring actors together & established collaborative relationships
- Shared goals = greater success
- Rely on trust
- Sustainability = building long term relationships
- Benefits:
o More egalitarian, “informal”,
- Ex. Human Global Compact
o Different actors fighting to achieve the same goals
3) Markets
- A virtual environment that houses trade & relations
- Perfectly competitive = equilibrium = supply = demand = theoretical not reality
- Do not have long-lasting relationship among
- Why are there not perfectly competitive markets?
o Monopolies or Cartels
- Benefits:
o competition drives innovation,
o rids of inefficient
o theoretically does not require government interference/supervision
- Command economy: government controls all the means of production & prices
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o Opposite of markets which gives you freedom
- Drawbacks: Market Failure and Monopolies
4) New Governance: Shift from Hierarchies Networks & Markets
- Governance of the public sector
- Health Care, Infrastructure, Education
- Privatization:
o Allows companies to be separate from governments
o Argues that it is less corrupt than bureaucracy
o Claims to be efficient have better delivery or services. But Sometimes it doesn’t have any changes in services
Ex. BC vs. Ontario Driver’s License
BC = non privatized = efficient & affordable
ONT = privatized = less efficient & expensive
5) Good Governance:
- Development theory merges to see how developing countires can develop to reach the level of developed
- “preferred-Steps” were promoted to achieve development – the #1target being economic dev.
- Policy Stand-Point: focused on the problems of the states as to why thery wer not developing
o 1) corruption, 2) inefficiency, 3) lacking political capacity
Chapter 4:
1) Power:
- Soft: “Hollywood” – The American way of life
o Portray the idea that if one adopts the same political, economic, social agendas f the US they can achieve the
ideal life, like in Hollywood.
- Bi-Polar:
- Multi-Polar
o Is the new world is this state now? Are we heading towards it?
US, China, European Union
Chapter 6:
- Natural Resources: Water, Oil, Forestry
- Human Resources: Labour (Skills, Age, Education)
- What helps the economy function? Contracts
- What is the basis of economic transactions? Buyer and Seller
- GDP: Gross Domestic Product
o What happens and what is produced within your border
o GDP = C + I + G + (X IM)
- GNP: Gross National Product
o The goods produced outside your country profits sent back to your country
o Comparative Advantage: specialization of production in the goods that a country is most efficient at
making results in overall advantage. Win win for both firms
o Allows countries to access markets that they would otherwise not have access too
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