POLD89H3 Lecture Notes - European Social Model, Espresso, The European Dream
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Global This! and Global That! … and Global Community It Is (or not)
VARIOUS Definitions of CULTURE:
1. arts collectively: art, music, literature, and related intellectual activities, considered collectively
The influence of American culture in China. popular culture
2. knowledge and sophistication: enlightenment and sophistication acquired through education and
exposure to the arts
They are people of (high) culture.
Pop culture and tolerance
3. shared beliefs and values of group: the beliefs, customs, practices, and social behavior of a particular
nation or people
4. people with shared beliefs and practices: a group of people whose shared beliefs and practices
identify the particular place, class, or time to which they belong
5. shared attitudes: a particular set of attitudes that characterizes a group of people
The company tries hard to avoid a blame culture.
6. growing of biological material: the growing of biological material, especially plants, microorganisms,
or animal tissue, in a nutrient substance culture medium in specially controlled conditions for scientific,
medical, or commercial purposes
7. biotechnology biological material grown in special conditions: biological material, especially plants,
microorganisms, or animal tissue, grown in a nutrient substance culture medium in specially controlled
conditions for scientific, medical, or commercial purposes
8. tillage: the cultivation of the land or soil in preparation for growing crops or plants
9. improvement: the development of a skill or expertise through training or education
Georg Simmel: Culture is "the cultivation of individuals through the agency of external forms which have
been objectified in the course of history".
In the 20th century, "culture" emerged as a concept central to anthropology, encompassing all human
phenomena that are not purely results of human genetics.
Specifically, the term "culture" in American anthropology had two meanings:
(1) the evolved human capacity to classify and represent experiences with symbols, and to act
imaginatively and creatively; and
(2) the distinct ways that people living in different parts of the world classified and represented their
experiences, and acted creatively. Following World War II, the term became important, albeit with
different meanings, in other disciplines such as cultural studies, organizational psychology and
Canadian Heritage is responsible for national policies and programs that promote Canadian content,
foster cultural participation, active citizenship and participation in Canada's civic life, and strengthen
connections among Canadians (http://www.pch.gc.ca/index-eng.cfm )
1. multidisciplinary study of culture across social strata: the study of culture from a sociological rather
than an aesthetic viewpoint. It draws on the social sciences such as politics and semiotics, rather than
traditional forms of literary, artistic, or musical criticism.
2. broad-based university course: a wide-ranging educational course, especially at college or university
level, covering all aspects of culture, the arts, sciences, and social science. It is often intended as a
foundation for other courses.
DEFINITION FOR OUR COURSE:
Culture, therefore, is the fabric of community. Hence,
A. Globalization in the sense of Americanization involves cultural homogenization, i.e. global
culture is supposed to be like American culture: cola, iPod, Britney, Big Mac, etc.
a. The critics of this form of globalization say that Americanization is a frontal attack on
cultural diversity, including deep-seated customs and traditions. It is CULTURAL
b. Broader sense: the North imposing also culture on the South
CULTURE IS THE WAY WE LIVE