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Lecture 4

POLB50 Lecture 4.pdf

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Political Science
Christopher Cochrane

POLB50 Lecture 4 October-04-12 3:00 PM Cue Column: Note-Taking Area: • Federalism federalism ○ Adopt British system and have federal country; hard to work ○ If province can do, federal can't and vice versa • Unitary System of gov't: all power from single central gov't centralized ○ Can take away powers or change on a whim even if multiple levels • John A Macdonald wanted centralization Confederacy unitary ○ Some parts not in favour • Confederacy decentralized gov't ○ All final issues with constituent gov't decentralized • Needed to compromise unitary centralized gov't and decentralized ○ MacDonald refused centralized gov't ○ Reason for civil war:  states had too much power  Needed to expand country □ Feared Americans would take over ○ Model to compromise both: federalism  Sovereignty: have final say □ In Canada divided into different levels  Each not subordinate to each other  Have own say to own responsibilities ◊ Provincial ◊ Federal  Does not mean federalism have same amount of power □ Could be that central gov't have more power  Centralized gov't □ Could be some provinces have more power over others (asymmetrical federalism) ○ Constitution Act 1867 sections 91 and 92 (know it)  Feds far more powerful than provinces □ All important powers to feds  Banking  Border security  Economic development □ Tax any way they want (direct/indirect)  Indirect: on manufacturer and passed on to consumer as final price ◊ Easy to conceal, thus easier to raise it  Direct: imposed directly on consumer □ Had more $$ □ Residual power granted  'what are we forgetting here; anything else forgot to give to provinces' □ Really centralized by this point □ Power  Disallowance (s. 56) ◊ Strike down provincial laws EVEN if belongs to provincial power  Reservation (s. 57) ◊ Province has lieutenant governor and can discuss w/ federal gov't ◊ Won't pass law until federal gov't approves □ Now basically provinces under fed  Provincial □ Hospitals and schools not important, but provinci
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